UMEA UNIVERSITY

Department of Informatics

Prof. em. Kristo Ivanov

<http://www.informatik.umu.se/~kivanov>

© Kristo Ivanov

 

 Version 1507161900

 

 

Customized complementary word & issue index for

C. West Churchman "The Design of Inquiring Systems: Basic Concepts of Systems and Organization".

(New York: Basic Books, 1971)

 

http://www.informatik.umu.se/~kivanov/chuindex.pdf

http://www.informatik.umu.se/~kivanov/chuindex.html

 

 

 


This word & issue index is customized to the purpose of fostering wider and deeper applications of a social dialectical systems approach. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the wordindex published in the book. Issue-indexing implies that even if the particular word does not appear on the referenced page, either a synonym, an associated, or analogue issue does. Additional explanatory material related to the same philosophical background can be found at the following URL and its links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C._West_Churchman.

 

Parenthesized page numbers, italics, and bold face types in the text below indicate an increasing degree of relevance and importance. Words referenced after the abbreviation "cf.", and whose radicals are not found in the index as is the case for words put within parentheses, point to entries in the book's own index or in Webster's Third New International Dictionary (unabridged) or in specialized dictionaries of the fields of information science and philosophy of science.

 

The purpose of presenting this index to a wider audience is to allow for a starting point for deeper and wider inquiries in a research tradition that allows for broad systemic relations between disciplinary areas and key notions as they appear in the index. The claim is that this book contributes to the establishment of a time-stable theoretical conceptual ground, or a "language" which Đ close to the tradition of philosophical pragmatism Đ facilitates communication among researchers who work in different schools of thought and areas of application. In particular this initiative aims at facilitating Đ in one same research organization Đ that every researcher be able to contribute to the work of colleagues by means of the easier initial understanding afforded by an tentative initial set of shared concepts which may be argumentatively modified or rejected in the further course of a particular inquiry.

 

This index can also be used for computerized searches of key words by means of the "Find" feature of word processors, and for this purpose it is available (document name <Chu-71 DIS-Index>) in a folder (<Ivanov to share> in <Gemesamma original> in <Diverse>) on the research server in the department's network jupiter.informatik.umu.se. It is also available through the World-Wide-Web at <http://www.informatik.umu.se/~kivanov/chuindex.pdf>  or at <http://www.informatik.umu.se/~kivanov/chuindex.html>.

 

Permission to make digital/hard copy of this work for personal or education use is granted provided that it is not done for profit or commercial advantage, and notice is given of the source.


 

 

 

 

 

 

absolute mind, 178; cf. progress, mind

absurdum, demonstration at, 112, 136, cf. axioms

academic freedom, 58

acceptability, vs. knowledge, 233; cf. satisfactoriness, values

accounting, of costs, 166-168; accounting system, 162; cf. budgeting

accuracy, 26, 31, 59, 61, 62, 65, 95-96, 83, 95, 98, 107, 108, 113, 115, 132, 135, 141, 146,  146, 150, 154-156, 160, 162, 168, 170, 174-175, 188-191, 193, 195-196, 190, 202, 253, 257; of observation, 154-155; and convergence, 95; as measure of confidence, 111; as minimization of bias, 141; and cost, 62; vs. drama; cf. truth, measurement, precision, reliability, correctness, validity, refinement, quality, validation, proof, confirmation, approximation, Ivanov (project AVH)

Ackoff, R.L., 51, 73?, 155

actability, as knowledge or potential for action, 11; cf. action, activity, actor, implementation, function, drama, politics, ateleology, implementation, speech act

action science, 13-16, (184-185), (199-200), 202-205; cf. implementation

action, and activity, 5-7, 10, 14, 44-46, 104, 114-115, 118, 124-125, 156, 159, 164, 166, 169, 202, 271; social ethical, 202; and design, 276; implementation and knowledge, 114; research, 184; and language, 115, 201-202; and fact or information, 164; as living reality and drama, 171, 173, 175;  as life vs. knowledge as grey theory, 204; as realism vs. idealism, 199; activities and workflow value-added, 166; description of, 156; and change, 271; plan of, 164, 167; as anti teleological good in itself, 249, 254; picture of alternative actions or Weltanschauung, 169; language theory, 102; as process, 204; and action meaning, 158, 163, cf. Abraham Kaplans "action meaning"; cf. implementation, reaction, function-structure-teleology,  is-ought, ethics, stimulus-response, interactivity, pragmatism, transaction, process, log and rock on the road, producer-product, romanticism

action language, 102, 115; cf. is-ought, imperative, indicative, illocutory, perlocutory, Austin, (Searle)

action research; cf. action science, implementation

active observer, 159

activity, 7, 166, 249; as good in itself or purposeful activity, 249; description of 43-46; 166; cf. action, actor, ateleology

actor, system's, 44-49, 71, 200-201, 204; actor network, 73, 171-174, 182, 185; functional, 44; social: cf. action; cf. system (and subsystem-component, teleological), client, decision maker, manager, designer, metadesigner, convergence of actor roles; as actor on scene: cf. theater, narrative

actor network, 18, 73, 171-174, 182, (193-194); cf. chap. (7) passim, innovation

actor network theory ANT, cf. actor network

adaptive systems, 63, 65; as incrementalism, 65-66; and objectivity, 63; cf. evolution, measurement, flexibility, growth, progress

adjustment, of observations (Ptolemaic), 196

advertising, incentives and pricing, 167

aesthetics, 18, 26, 37, 49, (99), 106, 114, 120, 140-141, 143, 155, 158, (170)-171, 195-196, 199-200, 203-205, 216-217, 249, 251, 264, 266; transcendental (Kant's), 129; as appropriateness, 142; as good in itself, 249; as artistic creation, 250-251, 266; as joke-play, 235; as taste, 266; as subjectivity, 159; and monism, 73; as formal elegance, 81, 120; as distanced contemplation, 172-174; as styles, 170; as colors and shapes, 139; repertoire of styles, 177; as policy scenario, 171; as the moral quality of the act, 49; as related to clarity and distinctness, 19-21; as creativity, 4; as poetic mood, 153; and beauty, love and truth, 264; art, 267; visual cartoon presentation, 182-184; aesthetic value, (189); aesthetic intuition, 124; and ethics, 216-217; beauty of a system and pragmatism, 120-121; aesthetic mood, 182; aesthetic sensuous intuition, 145; as (in Leibniz) faith to bridge perception and clarity, 242; as related to obscure non-clear and confuse ideas, 21; dimensions of aesthetical discussion (complexity, obscureness, confusedness), 37; cf. beauty, image, imagination, drama, narrative, taste, appropriateness, style, form, function, creativity

agent, intelligent, 116-118; as in Internet, 117; cf. actor, decision maker, artificial intelligence AI

aggregation, of data, 161

agreement, 85, 88,  92-94, 97, 101, 104-105, 110, 112, 114, 118-119, 126, 154, 157, 161-162, 169, 174, 187-188, 190-194, 198-199: esp. 190, 194, 198-199, 202, 243; control on, 150; in naive empiricism, 191; disagreement for, 193; as objectivity, 150; unconscious Lockean, 194; isomorphic, of inputs, 154; basis of conventional, 112; cf. consensus, consistency, cooperation, convergence, conversation, debate, conflict, pluralism, understanding, democracy, politics, enemy, disagreement, contradiction

AI; cf. artificial intelligence, expert systems, intelligence

algorithm, 88-89, 140; algorithmic thinking, 140

alienation, 159, 161, 163;  cf. commitment, participation

ambiguity, as related to redundancy, 161

analogy, 141, 143, 148; rich analogy, 143; cf. metaphor

analysis, 4, as decomposition, 67; as dichotomy, 159; cf. system-subsystems, partitioning

analytic philosophy, 134, 160-161

analytic sentences, 134

Anaxagoras, 41, 78

ancestors, 201; cf. death, past, future generations

ANT; cf. actor network (theory, Bruno Latour, Michel Callon)

antagonism, 178; cf. enemy, conflict, cooperation

anti-planning, 49; cf. anti teleology, anti-thinking

anti teleology, 49, 216-217, 246-258; cf. anti thinking, Checkland, postmodernism, ateleology, romanticism

anti thinking, 49, 176, 203; cf. anti teleology, ateleology, aesthetic, antinomy, relativism, postmodernism, romanticism

antinomy  144, 170, 172; and synthesis, 172; cf. antithesis, vs. contradiction, vs. enemy

antithesis, 170, 172-177

aposteriori or a-posteriori, 110; cf. apriori

apperception, 30, 73-75, 82, 93-94, (141-146, 197-198); cf. representation, Weltanschauung, sweeping-in, attention, will

applied problem, triviality of, 139-140

appreciation; cf. value, evaluation, ethics, quality

appropriateness, 130; of solution, 142; cf. aesthetics, beauty

approximation, 4, 95; to truth, 144; endless, 4; cf. convergence, accuracy, truth, reality, relativism, chap. (9), passim

apriori or a-priori, 88, 109-111, 115, 124-126, 128-129, 132, 136, 194, chap. 6, passim; vs. aposteriori, as hidden assumption, 184; Lockean, 99; empirical, 136; 110; self-examination of, 129; empiricist, 134; minimum, 124; Ptolemaic adjustments, 196; revision of, 194; generalization, 109-110; validation of, 130; cf. presuppositions; minimal, 124, 133-138; for empiricism, 133, 136; cf. aposteriori (a-posteriori)

Aquinas, St. Thomas, 18

arbitrary, 105, 117, 186-187, 189; cf. conventional

arbitrator, in conflict, 174; distinguished from synonyms: conciliator, mediator in negotiation or bargaining

archetype, 244-245; cf. myth, unconscious, Jung

archive, 101; cf. database, library

architecture, 7; cf. aesthetics, form, function, structure

argumentation, 175-176; cf. debate, learning, conversation, agreement, drama, sweeping-in, logic, Hegelian I.S. (chap. 7), Leibnizian fact nets (chap. 2)

Aristotle, 18, 108, 210-211, 253, 258; Aristotelian imagery, 210-211

arithmetic, 128-129, 130.131, (134), 192, 197; alternative, 129; and geometry and kinematics, 197; cf. mathematics

armament; cf. weapon

arrows-and-boxes, inputs as, 107

art, 158, 249, 266; and management, social science, and physics, 93; cf. aesthetics, apperception

artefact, separability or context of, 54; cf. technology, machine, artificial, instrument, production, function, means, tool

artificial, 4, 17, (131), 150, 156, 158, 161, 257, 259; cf. virtual, artificial intelligence, expert system

artificial intelligence, 4, 16-17, (21-22), 23, 26, 27-28, 39, 41, 63-64, (71), 74, (78, 87, 90), 91, 93,  99-102, 115-116, 118-119, 124, (129), 131, 134, 138, 150, 156-157, 158, 161, 195, 197, 214-215!-216, 256-257, 259-260, 262, 276-277; chap, 4, passim; cf. expert systems, intelligence; artefact, agent intelligent

as-if, 46

aspect 46, 75, (81), 107, 113, (119), 120, 124, 125, 149, 159, 166, 169, 170-171, 174-178; view, 194, 225; as subjectivism, 151-153, as state of mind, 156-157; and set of representations of object, 159; as descriptor, 192; cf. perspective, viewpoint, attitude, apriori, Weltanschauung, apperception, ateleology, anti teleology, vs. objectivity, subjectivism, relativism, observation, view, vision, image, picture, description, vs. action

aspiration (ideal), 253

assumptions 94, 145, 125, 183; analysis of, 171, 178; basic assumption, ontological assumption, 184, 192; and unexplainable events, 136; cf. presuppositions, foreknowledge

astrology, 244

astronomy, 135, 196-197; astronomical clock, 135; cf. Newton, Copernican revolution, Ptolemaic theory

astute empiricist, 150

ateleology, as basic design, 152-153, 216-217, 227-228, 252-255; cf. anti teleology, teleology

atoms, 209

attention, 98-99, 102, 112, 125, 138, 142, 166-168, 185; cf. relevance, observation, aspect, Weltanschauung, perception, teleology, apperception

attitude 105, 118, 159, 172, 252; as psychological temperament, 261; as alienated experimenters, 159; so-what, 164; cf. aspect, viewpoint

attribute, cf. property, 99-107, 202

auditing, 162, 190

Austin, John L., cf. action language, illocutory forces

authoring, cf. learning

authority and authorization, 99, 123, 144, 149-150, 153, 161-164, 167-168, 196; delegation of, 163-164, 167; vs. strategic decisions, 196; as perfect observer, 40; of international body, 188; cf. management, legitimation, responsibility, power, hierarchy, ethics, dogma

authorization, 167 (SAF), 160-162, 164

automation, 115-116; cf. artificial intelligence

autonomy, cf. independence, freedom, trilogy, handlingsutrymme (in Swedish), convergence

autopoiesis, 158, (169)

axioms, 136; of clock events and kinematical, 135; proof of empirical apriori set of axioms, 135-136; and theorems, 136, 142; cf. absurdum, theorems, hypothesis

background, visual, 125

backtrack, backtracking, 100

bargain, 174; cf. negotiation

basic data, 137; raw data, 82, 125, 133, 165-166

Bayesian probability, 114, 153

beauty, of systems, 120; of love, 264; cf. aesthetics, art

behavior, 149, 159

behavior, 148, 151, 154, 156-157, 159

being: cf. existence, ontology, essence, substance, phenomenology, interpretive

belief, 24, 114, 171-172, 184; cf. faith, conviction, guarantor, trust, hope, doubt

benefit, as resource allocation, 156; cf. performance measure, income, profit, ethics

Berkeley, G., 35, 105, 122, 150; cf. solipsism

Bessel, 197-198; effect, (156); cf. reaction time

bias, 141, 176, 183; cf. measurement, error, accuracy

biology, 116, 192, 197-198; molecular, 197; cf. function, life, organism

bird, black, example, 29-30

bird, example, 123-124; cf. swans

bird-egg, causality example, 134

bit, of information, 161

black box model, 154, 156; cf. stimulus-response

blood, as conviction, 178

body, knowledge through/of, 263; cf. sensation, perception, sensuous, empiricism, aesthetics, hypermedia, implementation, reality, mind, unconscious

Boolean compounding, 100-101, 106; class logic, 108-109

boundaries, 222

brain, 6, 23, 27-28, 39, 41, 118; as information processor, 161; monkey-brain, 23; research, 161; cf. spirit, soul, mind, reason-intellect, artificial intelligence

brain, human, 161

brain, monkey or ape, 23

bricolage and tinkering, 41, 51, 153, 193-194, 196; cf. improvisation, adaptive, evolution, ateleology, anti teleology, intuition, play, shift-and-drift

brilliance (intelligence), 222

browsing; cf. library, representation, navigation

Buddha, 204; cf. God

Buchanan, B., 79n

budgeting, 67; and cost accounting, 166-168; cf. PPB

bureaucracy, 162

business, cf. inventory, manufacturing, sales, e-business

butterfly and storm example, 63

buzzwords, in management fads, 92

calibration, 52, 132, 135-136 (A. Danielsson), 152, 191, 198; as adjustment of readings, 195-196; cf. measurement, standard

capital, 165-167; cf. inventory, environment, investment

car, and rock on road, 114-115; log across the road, 160

cardinality, and ordinality in measurement, 152

care; cf. lova, attention

Carnap, 81

case study, 131-132; (152), 171, 193, 255-256; and generalizations, 79, (108); and fact, 256; cf. ethnographic method, observation, generalization, uniqueness

catalogue, of opportunities, cf. repertoire

categories, 75-76, 108-109

catchwords, in management fads, 92

causality, 23, 44, 110, 113, 126, 131, 134; vs. statistical correlation, 131; in Hume, 130-131; causal hypotheses, 113; cf. explanation, understanding, producer-product, change

centralization, 67-68; as levels, 76-77; cf. decentralization, hierarchy, levels

certainty; cf. uncertainty

certification, cf. validation

change, 3, 11-12, 12, 14-15, 18, 41, 43, 47-8, 50-52, 63-64-66, 77, (160), 175, 194, 196-204, 215, 228; resistance to, 14; and politics-law revision, 193-194, 199; why, 194; of object of measurement, 196-197; optimal, 175; as revolution or counter-theories, 199; as revision of apriori, 194; and variation and revision in measurement, 191-200, 204; as adaptability to environment, 213; vs. restfulness, 200; as design, p. vii; cf. evolution, stability, process, variation, progress, shift and drift, trial-and-error, bricolage, creativity, learning, improvement, sweep-in, implementation, revision, causality, variation, revolution, flexibility, maturation, development, synthesis

chaos theory, as example of butterfly vs. storm, 63

chapter (1), 3, 63, 74, 77

chapter (2), 19, 21, 95, 97 (ex.), 105, 111, 116, 119, 122, 135, 144, 176-177 (summary), 194, 197, 241

chapter (3), 20, 37, 34-35, 42, 39, 40-41

chapter (4), 37, 39, 79, 116, 144-145, 197-198, 180, 259

chapter (5), 37, 95, 20-21, 33 111, (Leibniz), (118), 116, 122-123, 144, 177, 194, 242, 259, 105; vs. Leibniz, 241-242

chapter (6), 37, 128, 20, 70, 87, (95), 106, 109, 111, 116, 126, 149, 176-177, 194, 242, 259, 265

chapter (7), 20, 37, 149, 70, (95), 105, 119, 147, 194, 215, 249, 265, 271

chapter (9), 20, 37, 85, 186, 46, 85-86, 105, 119, 211, 214, 222-223, 253

chapter (10), 209, 238

chapter (11), 93, 122, 219

chapter (12), 180, 230, 180

chapter (13), 237, 229

chapter (16), 274, 109?

character; cf. entity, individuation, pattern, property, object

checkers-chess, examples, 22, (125), 138, 142; cf. games

Checkland, P.; 227-229, 249, 252, 254; vs. anatomy of goal seeking, purpose, will, and anti thinking, anti teleology, 247-258; ateleology, 227-228, 252-255; rich picture, 71-72, 170-171; and pluralism, 71; cf. Weltanschauung, 169-176

checks and balances, 169

chemistry, chap. (4) passim, 116, 144, 198

chess, 22-23, 26, (120), (125), 138, 142, 187 (arbitrary), 189; cf. checkers-chess

Christ, cf. God, religion, ethics, Buddha, hero

Church; as design of individual's relationship to his God, 205; vs. expertise in moral matters, 163; cf. religion

Churchman, C.W, on global ethical management, cf. ethics and http://www.haas.berkeley.edu/~gem

circle, vicious, 169; cf. vicious circle, infinite regress

clarity, clearness (cf. simplicity), 20-21

classes, 33, 108-109, 159; cf. logic

classification, 33, 36, 42, 117, 159, 186-187, 192, 204; coding, logical division, exhaustive-inclusive, 192; as distinctions, 192, 270; as labelling, 101; of sciences, 197; cf. measurement, partitioning, distinctions, taxonomy, categories, definition, partitioning

clear, vs. distinct, and simple vs. complex, 19-21

client, 47-48; mankind as generalized client, 65 vs. 67, 200-201; as future generations, 201; as an ought, 48; and ethics, 48

clock, cf. space-time, 106-107, 109-110, 131-132, 134-135; as an a priori, 110, astronomical botanical psychological, 110; astronomical, 110, 135

closed system, 44

coarse picture; cf. detail, image, clarity vs. simplicity

coconstruction, as collective mind, 162; cf. construction, cooperation, consensus, general will, dialectics, learning

coconstructive mind, 71, 162, 174

coding; 117, 192; cf. classification, taxonomy, measurement

cognition: cf. cognitive models, recognition

cognitive dissonance, 171

cognitive models, 156-157-158, 160-161; of value judgements, 102; recognition, 145; cognitive science, 161; cognitive styles: cf. styles, of inquiry (chaps. 2-10); cf. learning, inquiry, knowledge, mental models

coherence (theory of truth), 33

collaboration: cf. cooperation, work

collective conscious, 154, 162, 164

collective mind, 70, 162, 194, 196

collective unconscious, 203, cf. Jung, unconscious

color, perception and observation of, 101, 103, 150-151, 157-158, 164

comedy, 254; cf. comic

combination, and imagination, 31-32, 36; cf. creativity

comic, 178, 205

command, 115; ; cf. imperative mood

commerce, Internet-, 165; requiring decomposition principle, 67; cf. inventory wharehousing, e-business

commitment (cf. conviction, vs. cf. alienation); ontological, basic assumption, 192, 177

common sense, 19, 135, 162; realsim, 19; in pluralism, 71

communication, 5-6, 35, 107, 118-119, 123, 125, 135, 152, 169, 171, 198; for explicitation of design 155-157;  rich, 122; language of, 124; scientific, 61; efficiency of ICT information and communcation technology, 137; cf conversation, language, democracy, agreement, cooperation, Internet

communicative action; cf. action language, is-ought, Habermas

communism, 172-173, 222

community, Lockean, chap. (5), 101, 123, 187, 189, community of minds, 97; of practice, 167; conventional, 150; community or public knowledge, 154; interpretive community, 159; cf. Lockean I.S. chap. 5 passim

comparative method, 152-153

comparison, 187; of utilities, 155; and transformation into numbers in measurement, 187; cf. measurement, ordinality and cardinality, otherness

competence, 191, 200, 228; core, 184; in observation as judgment of competent over-observer, 191; cf. knowledge, learning; expert, perfect or normal observer, perfect observer, metadesigner, implementation, practice, evaluation, measure of performance

competition, between fact nets, 86, 93; cf. chap. (7) passim

completeness, 124; 199, 262; of empirical count, 120, 124; cf. contentment

complexity, 56, 137; and simplicity, 141;and simplicity, clarity, and distinctness, 19-21;  cf. simplicity

components, as subsystems, 7-8, 49-60, 56-57, 67, 167; cf. subsystems, parts

compromise, 174; cf. negotiation, agreement

computer as person (ref. Janlert, L-E), 214; cf. behaviorism

computer science, relevant direct or indirect references to, vii, 6, 9, 11-13, (14), 15-18, 20-21, 25-27, 35, 37, 45, 54, 58-59, 80, 82, 90-93, 101, 104, 112, 115-116, 118, 125-126, 129, 130-132, 137, 150, 158, 160, 171, 195, 197, 212, 214, 216; parsing 20-21, 142-143, 202; executive of operating system, 27; intelligence of, 259; as instrument, 81-94; support, 6; cf. tool, instrument, Hegelian IS, artificial intelligence, program

computer support, 115-116, 118; for negotiation, cf. Hegelian IS; cf. tool, instrument, artificial intelligence

computerization, as logical reconstruction, 195

computing , science: cf. algorithm, and Leibnizian inquiring systems, chap. 2 passim

computing, ubiquitous: cf. mobile Internet

conceptual framework, 82, 143; cf. system definition, model, theory

confidence, 83, 90, 111, 113, 199; cf. trust, conviction, confirmation

conferencing, 13

confirmation, 81; degree of, 80, 83; cf. confidence

conflict, 73, 105, 173-174, 177, 185, 188, 191, 196, 199, 203; resolution of, 174, and cf. diplomacy; of ideas, 177, 185; in measurement, 190; cf. agreement, disagreement, debate, enemy, diplomacy

confusedness, 96; as related to aesthetic, cf. simplicity, complexity, clarity, distinctness

connotation, 161; cf. denotation or extension

consciousness, 28, 39; political, 184-185, 276; cf. self-consciousness, self-reflection, explicitness, unconscious

consensus, 92; cf. agreement, consistency, chap. (5) passim

conservative, and reactionary, 17, 204; cf. reactionary, revolution, change

consistency, 31-32, 190-191, 193, 195, 198; in replications of observation in measurement, 191, 193; as overcoming of inconsistency, 197; cf. agreement, consensus, ambiguity

construction, 14, 33 & 175 (embryonic models), 56-57 (learning -part of the system), 63 (adaptivity-flexibility-stability), 105, 120 (who), 141 (flexibility), 162 (audit), 169 (picture), 171 (Hegel), 172-174 (coconstructive mind), 176 (cost), 199, 219-220, 227-229, 232, 235, 250, 253-244; as system reconstitution, 67; cf. fact-nets, consensus

construction, criticism of, 33, 63, vs monistic apperception, 75-76; as learning, 108; depictive, 141 & 145;  and agreement, 173, 174, 176-177, 194 ; challenge of 198-199 ; vs. embryo, 14, 15, 33; vs. change, 41;  as trial and error, 51;  as adaptive system, 63; vs depictive reality,  76; as progress, 178; as pluralism and common sense, 71; as collective mind, 162

constructivism, 72; cf. construction

constructs, 72

consulting, 74; and system, 184; cf. expertise, planner, designer

contentment, 199

context, 109, 167; and separability, 54; contextual induction, 109, 112; cf. system, environment, narrative, textualization (Zuboff)

contextual justification, 112

contingent facts or truths, 29-31, 76, 88, 96

continuous systems development, cf. evolution, improvement, change, revision, coconstruction, stability, learning, reengineering

contradiction, 32, 108, 170, 172, (182); as antinomy in unconstrained reason, 145, 170; apparent, 136; self-contradiction, 31; as stopping of formal inquiry, 70; vs. deadly enemy, 172; vs. contrariness, 182; cf. counter-instance, agreement, conversation, antinomy, self-contradiction

contrariness, 182, 193; logical, 182; vs. dual Weltanschauung, 198; cf. (counter)-hypothesis

control, 135, 150, 158, 196; as self-reflection, 158; as test of validity of results, 149; cf. guarantor, management, executive, implementation, authority, hierarchy, cybernetic feedback, power, evaluation, monitoring

conventional, 71-72, 101, 105, 112, 114-115, 117, 119-120, 123, 135,  137, 150, 186-189; community, 150; Lockean inquirers, 115; cf. arbitrary

convergence, 32-34, 95-96, 175-176, 194, 197, 199, 202, 241; of system actor roles, 200-201, 204; cf. sweeping-in, approximation, agreement, accuracy, ideal seeking, monism, Singerian inquiring systems chap. 9 (passim)

conversation , 70, 112-113, 136, 172-175, 185; conclusion vs. question, 118-119, 172, 277; cf communication: viii, contradiction, debate, sweep in, conversation killing

conversation killing, 6, 104-105, 144, (174), 198; as uncertainty blocked our of discourse, 202; depictive, 115; convention, 123; 160-164, 173, 198; through contradiction, 70; vs. deadly enemy, 172; cf. disagreement, agreement, counter-instance, debate, conflict, enemy, contradiction, conversation

conviction, 98-99, 111, 119, 122-123, 154, 170-174, 177-178, 184, 190, 229; from refinement or precision, 190; as vision, 178; origin of, 174; designer's, 154; as reflective intuition, 107; cf. feeling, vision, commitment, engagement, evidence, credibility, confidence, trust, faith, rhetoric, aesthetics

cookery, 266; cf. nourishment, gastronomy

cooperation, 54, 118-119, 121-122, 156, 174, 200-203, 250, 254; as ethics defined, 200; cf. learning, implementation, trilogy, production, agreement, politics, ethics, power, democracy, conflict, CSCW, love, charity

Copernican revolution, 137, 196

core competence, 184

correlation, statistical, vs. causality, 131

correctness, 170; cf. accuracy

correspondence, reality as, 160

ost accounting, 65-66, 124-125, 163-164, 167-168; in inventory control, 165

cost, and benefit, 67, 90-91, 92, 120-121, 124, 141, 163-165-166, 168; 177, 245, 270; of information, 120-122; opportunity cost, 165; and accuracy, 62; of empirical research and politics, 120; as resource allocation, 156; cost reduction, 124; cf. performance, measure of performance, resource, downsizing, reengineering

cost, systemic, 55, 141, 167-168, 176-177, 188; and empiricism, 120, opportunity cost, 167, 169; marginal, 141;  cost effectiveness, 67; and savings, 124

counter-instance, 194; counter-induction, 111-112; cf. contradiction, perfect observer

Cranberg, L.; cf. law, 198

creativity, 3-4, 13, 17-18, 30, 116, 118, 139-140, 142-143, (167), 195, 205, 216, 243 (religion), 249; as patterns of discovery, 80, 280; and design, 18, 142-143, 205; as discovery, 195; creative act, 243; in finding a rich analogy, 143; vs. methodology, 262; and the unconscious, 264-265; cf. design, imagination,  vision, production, intuition, learning, inspiration

credibility or credence, 98, 171-175, 190; cf. accuracy, trust, conviction, validity and validation, evidence, proof

crucial test, 136, 159; cf. test

CSCW, cf. cooperation, work, action-activity

Cuba crisis, 98

culture, 74, 105, 108, 170; cf. Weltanschauung, tradition, paradigm, Lockean community, consensus, history

cumulative knowledge; cf. fact nets, Leibnizian IS, Lockean IS

curiosity, 26

customer, cf. client

cybernetics, 214; cf. control, management

cyberspace; cf. Internet, community, system

data, 6,  8-9, 11, 36, 60-62, 72, 84, 90, 114, 125, 132-134, 137, 171, 215; collection of or memory, 6; separability of, 88-91, 110, 114, 132; collection, 153; data and program, 103; and assumptions, 132; economical set of data, 86, 137; vs. theory, 87; as system, 168; v s. information, 171; as optimum model, 171; immediate sense, 151-152; warrant of, 94-95, 169; raw basic data, 82, 99, 125, 133, 137, 165-166; and generalization, 111; immediacy of sense data, 155; representation, 116, 125-126, and chap. 7, passim; cf. symbol, input, picture, image, reception, fact, basic data

data analysis, 88-91, 114

data base, 9-10, 60-62, 95, 98, 101, 106, 108-109, 110, 114-115, 117, 120-121, 132-133, 160-162, 164-165-166, 171, 173, 175, 195, 216, 259; as instructions or program  202; as Lockean IS, 99-118; as library, 117, 121; as function of identifier, 106; as filing system, 101; as "is-it-indeed?", 164; as repertoire, 170; as image of reality, 160; vs. information system, 85; database systems, 121; transmitting data from, to theoretical sector, 132; acceptance of warranted, 195; cf. object orientation, data collection, retrieval

data collection, 84, 99-100, 106, 110, 114-115, 116, 120, 125, 132, 153, 155, 191; separability of, 132; cf. measurement, empiricism, rich data

data mining, 115, 132-133; cf. data collection, data base, statistics

data security, 161

data source, 150; collection from, 153

data structure, 137, 160-161; cf. knowledge representation

datadelegationen, 177, 180, 183

dead, clients, (133), 201

death, 200-201, 203; dead clients, (133), 201; cf. future generations, ancestors, God

debate, 32, (87), 158-159, 162, 175, 183, 185, 195, 199; as conversation, 174-175; vs. dialectic, 183, 185; and objectivity, 162, 175; cf. agreement, disagreement, conflict, learning, conversation

decentralization, 67-68, 196; as pluralism, 71; cf. centralization

decision, 105-106, 114-115, 164

decision makers, 43, 47, 52, 68, 92, 200-201; choice of, 52; and designer or planner, 66, 68; as leaders and heroes, 200; cf. management

decomposition principle, 67

deduction, 94; and induction, 145; cf. induction

definition, 4, 29-31, 77, 136, 205; operational, 115, 187, 191; redefinition, 136; cf. distinction, classification, translation

degree of freedom; cf. handlingsutrymme, freedom, tolerance, politics, power, negotiation

deliberation; cf. judgment, inquiry (passim)

deliberative polls, cf. democracy, democracy electronic

Delphi technique, 106; cf. opinion surveys, disagreement

demand, 166-167; cf. client, marketing, need, advertising

democracy  61, 68, 77, 105, 108, 123, 149, 158, 163-164, 169, 172-173, 176-177, 188, 194, 196, 203, 269; and law or legal system, 108, 123; and information, 176-177; as community knowledge, 154; as collective mind, 162; in inquiry, 268-269; as checks and balances, 169; as infinite regress, 169; as mutual observation, 154-155; as agreement in replication, 190; as decentralized control, 196; elec tronic e-democracy or governance, (123), 269-270; cf. participation, cooperation, majority, commitment, work, agreement, pluralism; vs. alienation, marxism, communism, power, law, justice

Democritus, 209

demonstration; cf. absurdum, axioms, proof, test, validity, truth, conviction

Dendral, AI-system, 98

denotation or extension, 161

depiction, cf. description

Descartes, 22, 62, 70

description, depictive, 76, 115-116, 120-122, 124-125, 135, 140-141, 145, 159-160, 163-164, 166, 170-171, 178, 195, 209; descriptive research, 120-121, 125; error as accuracy of, 201-202; vs. design, 135; descriptive vs. normative model, 133; cf. image, representation, reality, depiction, qualitative methods, normative, is-ought

descriptors, 193; cf. attributes

design, vii, 5-17, 48-49-50, 55, 74, 80, 97, 131, 135, 138, 150, 153-155, 162, 165-167, 169, 171, 173, 180, 205, 258, (276); defined, 5, 8, 14, 55, 59-60, 205, 258, 276; theory of, 262, 264, 267; prolegomena to, 16; subjectivistic theory of, 155; assumptions of, 123; choice of, 56; and judgment, 175; economy of, 142; and difficulty of planning, 153; essence and objectivity of, 159;  and hypothesis creation, 116; explicitness of, 155 and cf. explicitness; economy of, 141; strategy of, 194-195; of agreement, 157; vs. description, 135; as system, 55; as feeling of appropriateness, 142; and anti teleology, 247-258, 249; and living idea or vision, 173; ateleology as basic design, 227-228, 252-255; of a priori, 130, 142; ideal design, 74; of calibration, 152; of observation, 119; and creativity, 204-205; of degrees of freedom of action (Swedish handlingsutrymme), 164; of designers, 43, 47, 52, 55; dynamic, 64; intuition in, 25; long range, 48-49; and morality, 249; parsimony, 134; and problems in nature of inquiry, 259-273, 276; of science, 195, 201; and God, 205; separability of, 54, 66-67, 145-146,  and "ought", 74;  short range, 48-49; of simple inputs, 99; of input, 137-145; simplicity in, 78; of systems, 62-63-64; of input, 128; creative, 143; of an apriori, 130; experimental, 60; and Spinoza, 72; and short-long range goals, 48-49; and is-ought design vs. description, 135; design situation: cf. uniqueness, uncertainty, conflict; basic design and logical reconstructionism, method, 195; vs. description, 135; for objectivity, 149; participatory: cf. participation vs. alienation; of agreement-standard, 189; and history, 190, 195, 197; design system vs. system, 62-63, 111, 115; as change or as leadership, 50; critical desigh problems for I.S. with maximal apriori, 142-144; cf. creativity, form, function, creativity, intuition, romanticism, vision, ideal, stability, quality, method, learning, explicitness, implicitness, education, implementation, cooperation, tacit knowledge, construction, production, development, aesthetics, progress, Rittel H.

design work, the hidden rationale, 5, 8, 20, 32, 41, 43-46, 54ff, 125-126, 141-143, 153-156, 170-173, 243-245, 255, 262, 265, 276;  practice vs. imagination, 13; creative act, 17; imagination,  30, 32; elegance, 37; design rationality-ethics-aesthetics, (38), 49; personal non-theoretical knowledge,  87-88, 150; observed (design of design), 150; as personal vs. community knowledge, 154-155; explicit design, 154; and method, 171-172; design process and reflective intuition, 107; cf. tacit knowledge, parti, judgment

designer, 43, 47-48, 56, 81, 91, 120, 146, 150, 153, 155, 158-159, 162; as having a peculiar and separate role, 150, 153; as true paradoxial non-designer, 155; behavior and designed designer, 150; anti teleology of, 249; vs. decision maker,66, 68; as observer, 159; subjectivity of, 115; identity of, 146; isolation of, 120; vs. user, 118; designer's type of feeling against method, 92; designer's knowledge, 154; and politics, 66; as observer, 150; designer's conviction, 154; return home of from glamour, 203; cf. metadesigner, planner, expertise

detail, 87, 175, 190; as refinement, 190, 192; cf. partitioning,, subsystem of system, level, hierarchy, classification, refinement, attention

determinism, 209-210; cf. mechanism

development, 224, 229; cf. learning, progress, evolution, change

Dewey, J., 189; cf. pragmatism

dialectic, 170, 177, 182, 199, 245, 262; planning, 180; life of, 175; conviction in, 172; deadliest enemy in, 172; drama-theater in, 172, 178; and epic, 175; eternity of, 245; Hegelian, 170; in humor, 174; in judgement, 175; and leisure class, 176; long-range planning, 184; and political process, 185; and public information, 271; of science, 224; dialectic within dialectic and isolation of dialectic process, 183-184; transcendental, cf. Kant

dialogue, cf. dialectics, conversation, language, sweep in

dice, example,109

dichotomy, 159, 177; cf. classification, taxonomy, coding, analysis

dictionary, 29, 33

difference, make a, 164; cf. pragmatism

digital information, 161

diplomacy, as avoidance of misunderstandings: cf. Leibnizian I.S.; as creation of consensus: cf. chap. 5; as syntesis of opposition: cf. chap. 7

disagreement, 105, 113, 119, 162, 188, 193-194, 199; as significant variance or variation, 193; cf. conflict, agreement; conversation killing, Delphi technique

disciplinary science, 74, 195, 200; vs. interdisciplinary, 198; cf. discipline

disciplines, 40, 74, 195, as de Raadt modalities, 197; disciplinary knowledge, 200; cf. interdisciplinary

discourse, 103; cf. narrative, conversation, agreement, argumentation, dialectic, sweep in

discovery, 195

discrimination; cf. partitioning, classification, precision, accuracy, definition

dissent, 105; cf. disagreement

distinctions, 270; partitioning, 175; between types of validation, 225; cf. taxonomy, classification, taxonomy, coding, measurement, definition

distinctness, vs. clarity, and simple vs. complex, 19-21

distributed intelligent systems, 196; cf. mobile Internet

diversity, 104, 204; cf. otherness, pluralism, uniqueness, individuation

dogma, 162, 237

don Juan syndrome, 11; cf. hero, 202-203; cf. restlessness

Dooyeweerd, Herman; cf. multimodal, Donald De Raadt

double interact, cf. Karl Weick, 99-100, 102-107, 118-120; cf. agreement, cooperation, organization, Newton's syndrome

doubt, 109, 114, 172-173, 175; as a design method, 24; uncertainty of, 105; cf. probability, risk, uncertainty, vagueness, faith, belief, trust, hope, skepticism

downsizing, 124, 165; as cost reduction, 141; as management fad, 92-93; cf. reengineering, cost reduction, just in time, efficiency, effectiveness, productivity

drama, as living reality, 170-173, 175, 178, 181, 203, 244; cf. narrative, myth, rhetoric

Dreyfus, H., 16

drifting, or drift in the use of technology; cf. shift-and-drift, function-creep

duplication, cf. replication, uniqueness

dynamic knowledge or learning, 112; cf. evolutionary, learning

ecology, 144, 202; cf. pollution, aesthetics

e-commerce, cf. Internet commerce

economics, 25, 37, 67, 120, 122, 124, 137-138, 141, 152-153, 163-168, 176, 211; of information, 124; mathematical, 25; and social aspect, 124; cost accounting, 65-66; economic value of simplicity, 138-139; economic theory, 152; of data bases, 120-121; of information, 124; cf. cost, benefits, capital investment, profit, measure of performance

economy, of inquiry or thought, 15-16, 86, 120, 124, 137-138, 217; as effectiveness vs. parsimony, 141; of computation, 37; economical set of data, 86; of simplicity, 137-138, of time, 81

education, 184, 230, 268-269; and implementation, 230-236; graduate, 268; theory of, 230; and learning, 159-160; educational process, 158; cf. learning

effectiveness, 43, 133, 137; of inquiring systems' sectors, 133; as simplicity, 137; as economy, vs. parsimony, 141; vs efficiency, 137; cf. measure of performance, separability, efficiency, productivity

efficiency, vs. effectiveness, 137; cf. effectiveness, parsimony, productivity

EIS, cf. executive inftelligence systems

electronic commerce etc., requiring decomposition principle, 67, 165; cf. Internet

elegance; 120; cf. aesthetics

elementary, as simple and clear, 19

elements, 19; cf. input, entity

elephant and blind men example, 150, 159

elusiveness, 4, 18, 28, 195; cf. explicitness, intuition, tacit knowledge

emancipation, 13

embodiment, cf. body

embryo, 33; embryonic incrementalism, 41, 64-65, 228; as Newton's syndrome, 64; cf. adaptive system, evolution

emotions, 203; cf. mood, feeling, conviction, value

empiricism, 40, 61, 68, 71-72, 95-102-127, 116, 129, 131-132, 134-135, 146, 150-153, 155, 166, 171, 242; logical, 160, 166; and information, 166; and cost, 120; naive, 191; philosophically astute, 150; empirical investigation, 134; minimalistic, 134; subjective, 153; presuppositions of, 110; British, 151; vs. mathematics, 112; empirical method inquiry, 110, 112, 116, 121, 123-124, 155; completeness of empirical inquiry (cf. statistical sampling), 120, 124; empirical research's cost and politics, 120; empirical language, 125; is-ought linguistic puzzle of, 102, 202; cf. experiment, experience, observation, sensation, perception, data collection, Lockean IS, chap. 5, passim, practice

empowerment, 200; cf. autonomy, participation, politics, power

end, 45; and religion, 242

enemy, 98, 172, 180-181; 98, knowledge of; deadliest, 172-173, 178; cf. conflict

England, empiricism developed in, 150

entanglement, 167; cf. system, context

entelechies, 39

entity, 45, 93, 99, 104, 108, 106, 125-126, 129; as "it" or "what", 128; teleological, 93; process as entity, 100; entity relationship, 34; cf. object, system, subject, individuation, uniqueness, element, actor

environment, 8, 13, 42-78, 150-151; esp. 51-52, 56, 63; 166-167, 247-248; of science, 200; control of, 167; as informational constraint, 164; as size or limits of system, 56; as higher-level; cf. input, external Weltanschauung, 174; cf. separability, input, context, Swedish "handlingsutrymme", "miljš"

EOQ (economic order quantity), 165

epic, 174, 177, 182, 203; cf. drama

Epictetus, 252

epistemology, 17-18, 103, 155, 171-172

ERP enterprise resource planning; as management fad, 92-93; cf. manufacturing, management information systems MIS

error, 113, 136, 201-202, 242

esoterism, 58, 184, 200; cf. exoteric, accuracy, measurement

essence, 27-28, cf. existence, 76

ether, 238

ethics, 12, 48-49, 63, 70, 73, 163, 197-198, 200, 202, 216, 218, 222, 255; morals 6, 17; personal, 200-201; as function of clients, 200-201; as good intentions; vs. authority-responsibility, 196; as power or cooperation, 200; and power, knowledge and beauty, 73; and theology, 200; ethical judgement, (202); vs. value measurement, 152-153; of imperative, 202; cf. values, good, conviction, goal, purpose, is-ought, greed, God, guarantor, warrant, cooperation, URL: http://www.haas.berkeley.edu/~gem

ethnicity, multi-, (182)

ethnographic method and observation, 119, 121, 125-126, 138-139, 154, 156, 159-160, 166-167, 171, 195; cf. qualitative method, scientific method, observation

evaluation, 136, 263-264; empirical, 110; cf. value, utility, quality

event, 134, 136: cf. message, information, function, action, transaction

evidence, 55, 63, 76, 112, 152, 164, 172; knowledge and probability, 55; credibility or credence, 173; vs. mood, 203; self-evidence, 27, 162; objective, 119; cf. counter-instance; cf. proof, truth, relevance, validity

evil, 72, 76; cf. ethics

evolution, 33, 63-66, 112;  positivism as, 63, 66-67; evolutionary adaptive system, 63, 175; as progress, 178; cf. flexibility, adaptive, growth, progress, incrementalism, learning, change, improvement, change, survival-reproduction, coconstruction, reengineering, embryo, adaptive system

examples, pedagogical in the book; cf. bird (and egg, swan), dice, elephant, log, rock, sawmill, toothache, radarscope, swan, sales statistics, color perception, log across the road, sailing and smaller mind, spectacles, checkers-chess, ticktacktoe, magic square, hawk-dove, mother and quarreling sons, stooge, table or desk in measurement, monkey brain, rain today, butterfly and storm, Cuba crisis, scratches on photographical plate, young Lockean investigator, professors and dissenting students

excluded middle, principle, 108

executive, 27, 33, 36-38, 142, 145-146, 148; operating system, 27; executive intelligence system, 97, 112-113, 118, 124, 175; ; executive intelligence I.S.: cf. control, strategy, intelligence, information systems, (operating system)

exhaustive classification or taxonomy, 192

existence, 71, 76, 78; cf. ontology

exoteric, 200, 219-220, 225, 237, 268; cf. esoteric

experience, 26, 100, 119, 129, 135, 144, 148, 170, 250; meaning of, 70; learning by, 131; human, 119; cf. learning, perception, sensation

experiments, 42, 60, 63, 73-75, 85, 87, 113, 134-136, 159, 183-184, 192-194, 198-199, 229, 231, 235; as systems, 60; experimental results and theory, 192; statistical, 183-184; experimental method, 113, 135, 191-194; positivistic, 60; as alienation, 159; Galilei's, 132; thought experiment, 191; experimental design, 113, 182, 183-184; experimentation, 51, 192; cf. replication; cf. chap. (12) 230ff;

expertise, 49-50, 74, 82-83, 87, 99, 101, 111-112, 114, 162-163, 168-169, 176-177, 180, 183, 268-269, 272-273; and information, 101, 114, 118, 162; in inquiry, 87-88, 99; test of, 163;  in systems science, 231;defense of, 269; as subsystems separability, 53; and monism, 73-74; and democracy, 176; cf. designer, consulting, specialization, artificial intelligence, expert systems, systems separability, peer review, idiot savant

explanation, 4, 6, 26-27, 35, 37, 41, 46, 80, 83, 85-86, 100, 104, 136-137, 154; unexplainable events, 136; explanatory model, 80; cf. why, because, meaning, implication, interpretation, understanding, interpretation

explicitness, 145, 154-155, 171, 175, 177-178, 186, 194; giving up, 175, 177-178; cf. implicit, tacit knowledge, design, subjectivism

exploration, and innovation; cf. innovation

explosion, of information, 176, 267; cf. expertise

expressing information, 137; cf. gestalt

extension, 77, or denotation, 161; cf. intension

external, 20, 33, 35, 36, 84, 122, 128, 144, 149, 151, 157-159; cf. input, environment

extrapolation, 210

facilitator (neutral observer), 159; as synthesizer, 174; cf. negotiation

fact (nets), 32, 37, 39-40, 79, 86, 88, 111, 127, 141, 143, 160, 164, 197, 225; top-bottom-end (of implication) 32, 39-40, 79, 88; in inducer, 143; in intelligence, 98; in Leibniz, 32; in organic chemistry, 82; ranking of, 34, 37; as likely truth, 32; as information, 160

fact, 32, 86, 90, 150, 160-161, 164; simple, 108; objective, 158; and action, 164; and value, 164; as likely truth, 32; and alienation of self, 161; fact nets, 95, chap. (2) passim; cf. truth, data, past, evidence, information, empiricism

fads, or research or management, 92

faith, (164), 229, 237, 240-243; and science, 240-246; and belief, 24; cf. belief, guarantor, conviction, trust, hope, doubt, religion

falsification, 24, 40, 88, 98, 136, 199, 220; cf. error, truth, conviction, encryption, coding

fantasy, 96; cf. imagination

fascism, and socialism, 68

feasibility, 63; as approvability-probability, 211; cf. implementation

federative or federation, cf. system

feeling, 13, 76, 119, 151, 161, (203), 261-262-264, 270-271; as primacy of the subjective, 151; as commitment, 171; sensation as surrogate of, 264-265; subjective, 114, 155, 158, 161; as mood, 182, 203; of appropriateness in design, 142; cf. mood, intuition (as "right feeling"), love, conviction, experience, sensation, emotion, postmodernism, unconscious, romanticism

Feingenbaum, E. A., 79n, 100

Fermat P. and mathematics, 112

figure, of thought, 158, 169, 171-172; cf. image, vision, myth, symbol, metaphor, aesthetics

file, 101; cf. database, library

filter, of information, 96, 98

fitness, as appropriateness, 262

flexibility, 63-64, 110, 141, as change, 194; as adjustment of measurements, 196; cf. evolution, learning, adjustment, stability, change, adaptive

flow, (28, 155); as process vs. progress, 203-205; cf. fitness, process, creativity, imagination, intuition, inspiration, enthusiasm, progress, learning, romanticism

forecast, 105-106, 110, 131, 133, 150, 153, 165; cf. prediction, regularity, replication, generalization, past, future, history, improvisation, bricolage

foreknowledge, 109; cf. apriori, assumptions, presuppositions, user model

form, 29; logical, 108; cf. formal, experience, feeling, aesthetic, sensation, value, judgement, morphology, structure, experience, function

formal, 29, 70, 140, 171-172, 186; formal science, 129-130; formal thinking, 6; cf. logic, mathematics

formative context, (166); cf. environment, system, practice, praxis

fourth-box imagery, 216, 243

fragmentation, 202

framework, 110; conceptual, 72, 143

freedom, 11-12, 245; of inquiry, 58, of the press, 196; 71; of action, 164 and cf. degree of freedom in action (in Swedish) handlingsutrymme, 7, 13; academic, 58; cf. stability, responsibility, autonomy, power

function-morphology/structure-teleology, 44-45, 197, 214; in Ackoff's book Scientific Method 155-163; of systems, 75; basic functions as apperception, 75, 78; as action-activity; psychological, 261; functionalism, (204); cf. form, biology, Ackoff-Emery's book On Purposeful Systems pp.19-32

functionality; cf. measurement of performance, satisfactoriness, quality, aesthetics

future generations, 59, 247, 201, 254; vs. past, 201; as client, 201; cf. death, ancestors

futures research, 131; cf. forecast, prediction, cause, past-future

fuzzy sets, 105, 214

fšrutsţttningslšshet (Swedish for no presuppositions), 124; cf. apriori

Galilei, G. 132; debate (112)

gambling, 241; cf. play, humor

game theory, 64, 153, 168, 235, 241; and nature, 238; cf. gambling, games

games, 23, 125, 138-139, 235; cf. checkers, chess, ticktacktoe, magic square, virtuality, drama, play, rules

gastronomy, cf. cookery, nourishment

general systems theory, 41, 75, 77, 78, 93, (168)

general will (Rousseau), 162; as supreme objective mind, 174, 176-177; as collective absolute mind, 70; and group mind, 68; as good collective mind, 70

generalization, 8, 79, 94, 108-110-112, 123-130-132, 145, 152, 245, 257; as learning, 108; sector of inquirer, 130; vs. counter-instance, 111-112; see particularly: 114, 125, 129, 142, 256; vs. input, 130ff; cf. induction, learning, client generalization

genetic engineering; cf. molecular biology, 197; cf. information and chap. (2) passim

geodetic survey, coast and, 187

geographical information systems Đ GIS, see space-time framework, action, representation, object-orientation

geometry, 28, 128-129, 134, 136-137, 197; alternative, 129; Euclidean vs. hyperbolic solic, 136; of physicists, 137; and arithmetic and kinematics, 197; cf. space

Gestalt, as expression of information, 137-143; cf. pattern, expression, representation

GIS, cf. geographical information systems

goal; goal-seeking behavior, 210, 213; vs. ideal vs. overall purposeful activity, 5; partial, 73; teleology, anti teleology, ateleology, action

God, 12, 23, 24, 33-34, 36, 69-70, 72, 74, 95, (176)-177, 203, 205, 241; and intuition, 28, 243; in Leibniz, 33-34; as manager, 74; as the whole and overall system, 69-70; proof of existence, 23, 33-34, 70, 263; and research, 244; as scientist, 74 vs. 96; as supreme objective mind, 174, 176-177; as general will, 162; as cooperation, 200; as Buddha, 204; as endless approximation, 199; and the hero, 205; message from and hero, 203; design of relationship with / heroic mood, 205; Hegelian 177-178; as theological "whole breadth of inquiry", 196; cf. religion, guarantor, warrant, Christianity, ethics

good, 12; in rationalism, 73; ranking of goods, 73-74; as power in design, 6, 3 vs. 12; cf. ethics, values

gossip, 98

government; cf. state government, management, monism, executive

graduate education, as young researcher, 121, 199

graph, 83, 181

greed, and hypocrisy, 173

grounded theory, 61-62, 84

group mind, 68

grov bild (in Swedish), cf. coarse picture, vision, image, simulation, detail, vs. skarp miljš

growth, cf. evolution, progress, incrementalism, learning, improvement, change, coconstruction, reengineering

guarantor, 59, 62-63, 47, 53-54?, 59-60, 62-63!, 68, 71, 73, 76-78, 93, 98-99, 105, 123-124, 144-145, 160, 162, 176-177-178, 201, 204-205, 216, 229, 237, 239-240-241, 276; design of, 23; in Lockean IS, 115, 123; external Hegelian, 145; and nature, 274; and future generations, 247; as Hegelian Absolute Mind, 174; as information master vs. slave, 161; for the elephant and the blind men, 159; as Hegelian over-observer, 191; of a clock, 135; of reality of inputs, 123; cf. control, warrant, belief, faith, God, ethics, conviction, security, trust

Habermas, J., as faith in the existence of agreement, 243; cf. action language, is-ought, Werner Ulrich, (Austin), (Searle's) speech acts

Hadamard, 28

handlingsrationalitet, cf. action, response

handlingsutrymme (Swedish for environment, degrees of freedom in action) and design 7, 13, 105; cf. environment, resources, functional class, external, situated action, autonomy, freedom, politics, oppression, conflict, agreement

hawks, and doves, 182

Hawthorne (idea), 54

HCI, cf. human-computer interaction

HCS, Ivanov's "humanistic computing science" (references to)

Hegel, G.W.F., 35, 70, 105, 158, 170-172, 191, 194, 235, 245, 249; move to Hegelian from Kantian I.S., 265

Heidegger; cf. phenomenology, interpretiive, ontology, existence, being, otherness

Hempel, 256

heritage, 201

hermeneutics, cf. sweeping-in, interpretation, understanding, meaning, apriori, aspects, translation, conversation as pp. vii-viii, learning

hero, 200, 203-204, 244; and his god, 205; heroic mood, 202-203; design of, 204; cf. epic, drama, narrative

heuristics, 27, 82-83, 144; search methods, 38

hierarchy in systems, 76-77, 144; levels, 76, (105); and participation, 77; cf. authority, levels, authority, power, separability, components

Hillman, J., 178, 203, 280; cf. Jung

history, 133, 160-161, 166-167, 190; past vs. future, 110, 131-132, 133, 150, 153, 160, 166, 256; of observations, 191; of science, 193; importance of, in design, 190; cf. forecast, prediction, past-future, future, past generations

hope, 237; cf. faith, trust, belief, religion, future generations, doubt

horizontal organization, 196; cf. network

how, 194-195; cf. why, what-how

human component or dimension, humanness, capabilities of human component, 97, 118; cf. humanism, social, individuation, uniqueness

human-computer interaction HCI or CHI, 117-119, (121), 125, 137, 159; as time for performing a task, 15;  human systems components, 118; translation into the language of the user, 125; cf. interactivity, reaction-response, support, computer, work, usability, time savings, HCI, CHI

humanism, Enlightenment's, 255-256; as individuality, 277; cf. personal knowledge; cf. individuation, uniqueness

Hume, D., 119, 131; problem of, 110, 119, 131; cf. skepticism

humor, 174, 177, 203; of science, 235; cf. tragedy, comic, play, game

hypermedia, 9, 13; as sensation-surrogate of feeling, 264-265; cf. drama, aesthetics, sensation, postmodernism, anti teleology, ateleology, synaesthesia, play, network

hypersystem, 52, (121), 149, 155-156, 158-159, 169, 175, 191, 196, 199; actor roles in, 200-201; as apperception, 73-74

hypertext, 117, 128

hypothesis, 80, 83, 89, 172, 192-193, 199; formulation, 194-195; vs. counter-hypothesis, 199; testing, 115, 192-193, 196-197, 199;  cf. thesis, contrariness

icon, 20; cf. picture, image, sign

idea, 20; innate, 145, chap. (2) passim; cf. innate ideas, vision, input, intuition

ideal, 199, 201; and real, 178, 256; ideal design, 13, 74; idealist and realist cit., 199

idealism, 199, 204; and realism, 245

idealist, 199, 245; vs. realist, 199

identification, 36-37, (44), 48, 82, 85, 93, 100-101, 103-104, 106, 111, 124, 127-128, 131, 151, 193, 255-256; and individuation, 111; as conventional identifier, 72; identifier, 106; cf. individuation

idios (idiography), 245, 256

idiot-savant, 32, 139-141, (216-217), 222, 260; ; cf. expertise

if-then, 80, 94, 103; cf. implication, indicative "is", imperative "ought"

illocutory forces, 102; cf. action language, imperative, indicative, is-ought, (Austin), (Searle)

illusion, 157, 204, 262; cf. virtual

image recognition, 38, 125-126, 138-140

image, 20, 76, 100, 103, 151, 159, 200; of the mind, 151; of reality, 202-218; ideal scenario, 171, 177; of nature, natural, 159, 194, 209-212; as image-picture of Weltanschauung, 169; images of inquiry, 209-215; as picture inputs to Leibnizian IS, 20; as advertising or propaganda, 183-184;  processing of, 124; as pattern of behavior, 5; as "arrows and boxes", 107; natural or imagery, 194-195, 197-198, 209; cf. vision, depictive, Weltanschauung, symbol, Jung-archetype, picture, natural image, ideal

imagination, 13, 18-19, 27, 30, 32, 36, 96, 116, 122, 127; cf. creativity, design, fantasy, aesthetics, combination, metaphysics

immediacy, of sense data, 155

imperative mood, 102-3, 105, 115, 201-202, 247; judgment of acceptance of instruction in, 164, 202; and linguistic puzzle of empiricism, 102, 202; cf. indicative; cf. is-ought, ought, deontic, action, instruction

implementation, 5, 13-14, 18, 47-48, 52, 59, 65-66, 92-93, 114-115, 180, 193, 199, 219-229, 230-236, 269, 274; causes of failure, 232-235; cf. action, politics, measure of performance, satisfactoriness, teleology

implication, 26, 31, 37, 39-40; cf. inference, induction, deduction

implicitness, 178; and explicitness, 155; cf. explicitness

impression, 119; cf. sensation

improvement, 111, 153, 165, 201; cf. learning, progress, change, evolution, measure of performance, chap. (7) passim

improvisation, 11, 41, 63, 83, 120, 153, 124, 153, (167); and planning, 41; as circumambulatio, 205; as storm sailing, 11; cf. change, situated action, bricolage, shift and drift, postmodernism, satisfactoriness and satisficing, vs. forecast, prediction, planning

income, measurement of, 189-190; cf. benefit

inconsistency, and its overcoming in reading, 197; cf. consistency

incrementalism, 41, 65, 71, 228; cf. trial & error, change

independence, 191; cf. autonomy

indicative mood, 102-103, 105-107, 109, 115, 135, 168, 201-202; as expert judgment, 164; cf. is-ought, imperative, mood of propositions

individualism, 4, 68, 71, 154-156, 193, 202, 204

individuation, 36-37, 111, 129, 131; and identification, 111; by space-time, 110; and uniqueness, 204, 245; vs. classes, 108; as same-another, 151; Jungian process of, 262; cf. identification, uniqueness, entity, object, item

inducer (induction) and fact net, 143

induction, 26-27, 79, 83, 87, 94, 108-110, 111, 115, 123, 124, 145, 151-152; explanation of, 80; justification of, 79; Lockean, 112, 123; problem of, 80, 88; and deduction, 145; strategy of, 111; as a system, 90; Mill's laws of, 113; inductive logic, 123; classical 79, 83; cf. generalization, deduction

inference, 94, 151-153, 191; from observation, 87, 152; cf. induction, implication, deduction, generalization, learning

infinite regress, 178; regress or vicious circle, 168-169, 188

informatics, as method-science, 60, (74); cf. information, information systems

information; 9, 147, 85, 121, 159-162, 164-5, 167-168; 171; structure 136-137 & 139; auditors, 162; additional or knowledge, 85; and politics, 121; and authority, 164; basic, 165; expressing  (gestalt), 137; bureaucracy, 162; explosion 91, 267; and event or message, 136; interpretation of, 137, 142; the conquering lord, 161; economics of, 124; empiricism, 166; experts, 162; in inventory control, 165; and mind, 160; master-and-slave, 160-161; morality, 163; public, 176; reception of, 100, 128; retrieval of, 101, 162; and teleology, 163, 165; mathematical theory of, 161; and Weltanschauung, 169-179; digital, 161; systemic, 167-168; teleological, 165, 167-168; structures of, 137; human as information processing, 161; vs. data, 171; society, 217-218; for action: see log, rock, action; cf. data, fact, input, message, event, knowledge, bits

information system, 54, 56, 62, 85, 167-168; as part of or vs. system, 56, 60; as design system, 54; as model or data, 61-62; reality of, 72; vs. data base, 85; analogy to "total generator plant", 72; as production system, 141; and organization, 121; executive and strategic, 175; cf. data base, information vs. object, metaphysics or ontology, inquiring system, passim

information technology IT, cf. computer, communication, informationinnate ideas, 33-36, 84, 105, 116, 122, 145

inheritance, 108

innate ideas, chap. 2 passim, 145

inner process, 107

innovation, sociology of, 93, 193-194; as restless change, 199-200, 203; and exploration (of e.g. technology), 193, 199; and heroic quest, 203-204; cf. creativity, change, technology spread acceptance assimilation

input model, 142-143

input, 19, 20-22, 33, 35, 45, 96, 84, 86, 91, 96, 99, 100, 106-107, 116, 118, 128, 137-138, 142-145-146-147-148, 151-152, 154, 157-159, 167, 196, 239, 265; as validated received entity, 107; input process, 99-100; mode of receiving, 137; inputs and models, 140, 143, 147-148; arrows and boxes, 107; as stimulus, 159; reality of, 122-123; as mode of receiving information, 137; as inside/outside, 96, 151; distortion of, 156; adjustment of 196; as part of the unconscious, 265; cf. observation, measurement, information, message, apriori, inside-outside; environment, idea, reception, data collection, problem definition

input-output; representation of observer, 84, 156

inquirer (not a special type of person), 268

inquiry: as production system, 141; error in, 113; simplicity of, 142

inside-outside, 96, 150-151; cf. input

insight, 81

inspiration; cf. creativity, intuition, imagination

instruction; cf. is-ought, learning, imperative mood, program

instrument, 81-83-94, 115-116, 136; vs. theory, 83; teleological, 93-94; test of, 83; cf. tool, means, measurement

intellect, 27, 145

intelligence, 4, 16, 97, (125), 137, 140-141, 143-145, 259-260; intelligence test, 39, 140-141, 143; cf. artificial intelligence, distributed intelligent systems, intelligent agents, reason-intellect, mind, knowledge

intelligence systems, military, 97-98, 124; cf. strategy, enemy, competition

intelligence tests, 143

intelligent agent, cf. agent artificial, artefact, artificial intelligence AI

intelligibility as design, 145, 155; cf. explicit

intension, 77; cf. extension

intensity, of impressions, 107, 119; cf. sensation

interaction, 31, 43-46, 159, 168-169; cf. action, reaction, response, stimulus, dialectics, communication, cooperation, learning, conversation, sweep in, human-computer interaction HCI-CHI

interactivity, 15-16, 83ff, 106, 159, 168, 170, 171-174, 183; cf. action-activity, reaction, response, human-computer interaction

interdisciplinarity, 40, 74-75, 195, 197-198, 200; cf. system, transdisciplinarity, apperception, sweep in, conversation, perspective, aspect, Weltanschauung

interface, 151; cf. separability, interaction, action

internal-external (cf. input), 26, 26, 33, 36, 84, 107, 122, 128, 138, 144-145, 151, 156-157, 159

international body, authority of, 188

Internet analogies, 9-10, 13-16, 26, 61-62, 117, 120-121; Internet design, 128; navigation browsing retrieval, 62, 117; Internet commerce, 165; as scientific communication, 61-62; requiring decomposition principle for business analysis, 67; cf. library, communication, database, hypermedia, network, World Wide Web

interpolation-extrapolation, 112; cf. partitioning

interpretation, 110, 136-137, 142; ease of, 137; of data in Weltanschauung, 110, 169-170; of sensory responses, 194; of information, 137, 142; cf. meaning, perspective, understanding, explanation

interpretive approach, 49, 158-160, 170-172, 174, 176, 181-185, 198; cf. phenomenology, understanding, meaning, life, intersubjectivity

interpretive community, 159; cf. chap.(5) passim

interrogative mood, cf. mood of propositions

intersubjectivity, 149, 159, 169; cf. hypersystem, interpretive approach

intervention, 171; cf. participation, cooperation, conflict, politics, implementation, reality

interviews, and alienated experimenters, 159; interview technique, 120-121; cf. conversation, data collection, questioning, understanding, explanation, interpretation

introspection, 107, 129, 150-156; as inner process or reflection, 107; cf. subjectivism, reflection, self-reflection; (sensuous) intuition, mind

intuition, 21, 25-28, 71, 76, 80, 81, 84, 87-88, 90, 92, 114, 119, 120-121, (150-151), 153-155, 158, 171, 176-177, 194, 203-205, 243, 261-263; as subjective feeling, 114, 119; as common sense, 13; Spinozian, 25-28; as poetic fashion, 153; reflective, 107; sensuous, 131, 145; as aesthetical fitness, 80; having a feel vs right feeling, 90; aesthetic intuition, 124; cf. judgment, creativity, imagination, perception, sensuous intuition, unconscious, elusive, drama, romanticism, inspiration

invariances, 156; cf. change, trial and error, stability

inventory model, 53-54, 165-166; cf. Internet commerce

investment, 167; cf. economics, capital

irony, cf. humor, drama, narrative

irrationality, 159; cf. rationality, evidence, truth

IS, cf. information (system), 159-168

is-it-indeed, database as, 164

is-ought, 52, 54, 56, 74, 102-103, 115, 133, 164, 168, 198, 201-202; in prediction, 110; and linguistic puzzle of empiricism, 102, 202; cf. ought, instruction, ethics, ndicative, imperative, description, action

isomorphism (cf. general systems theory), 11, 110, 125, 154

it, 128; cf. entity, individuation

IT-information technology, cf. computer, communication, information

item, 101, 104; cf. individuation

iteration (cf. self, recurrence-recursivity), 135-136

Ivanov*, Kristo (project SAF on privacy, integrity, and rule-of-law), 123!, 155, 167, 172, 174, 175!; checks and balances, 169

Ivanov*, Kristo, (project A2psi on "Psychology and computers"), 6, 18, 24, 25 (intuition, Hilbert vs. Brouwer), 32 (love, idiot savant), 68 (vs. Jung), 81, 82, 92, 96, 97, 98 (psiA), (129) (precision), (105), 107, 110, 118-119 (love), 121, 123, 150, 162, 190 (convincing), 197, 216-217 (idiot savant), 215

Ivanov*, Kristo, (project AVH on "Quality-accuracy"), 4, 6, 5, 9, 10, 15, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 29, 31, 32 (relevance), 33, 37, 39, 40, (46), 59, 60-61, 62-63, 65, 74-75, 77, 83-84-85, 86, 88!?, 95-96, 97-98-101, 103-104-105, 107, 109-110-111-113, 116, 118-120, 123, 131-132, 133, 135-136, 141, 147, 150, 153-154-155, 156, 159, 160-161,-162, 166, 167, 173-174, 175, 178, 186-187, 190-193-194, 199, 201-202, 211, 218, 225, 235 (replication, precision-accuracy), 239, 242, 253, 257, 265-266, 268, 272, 273, 277; convergence of search & truth, 175

Ivanov*, Kristo, (project B&R on Belief & Reason), 4, 12, 24-25, 28, 34, 36, 40, 49, 96, 119, 121 (D'Arcy hierarchy spirit-knowledge), x163!, 172, 173 (love), 174, 176, 196, 200, 203, 204-205

Ivanov*, Kristo, (sub project A2M  on "Method for project Psychology and Computers"), 85, 92!, 139 (mat), 154-155 (Jung-A2psi), 171-172-173, , 177 (J), 178 (J), (190), 197, 240-241, 243, 245

James, W., 164, 168, 238, 240; cf. pragmatism

judgement, 25, 27, 28, 101-102, 113, 175, 193-194, 202; expert and design judgment, 99; expert judgment, 164; as reflective intuition, 107; as subjective belief, 114; as intensity of impression, 119; basis for, 101; ethical imperative mode of, 202; and design, 175; by inquiring system, 192; of whole system, 193; cf. decision, intuition, measurement, deliberation

Jung, C.G., (105), 203-204, 205, 244, 261-262, 272, 277, 280, vs. 96, (171); value judgments, 102; type, 19, 36; psychological attitude, 105; contemporary marriage, 199; Jungian individuation process, 262; unconscious, (123), see innate ideas (vs. archetypes), myths, mood; cf. Hillman, (178, 203, 280); cf. collective unconscious, unconscious, hero, myth, individuation-uniqueness

just-in-time, 165-166; cf. inventory model

justice, 123; cf. law, democracy

Kant, 43-44, 70, 87, 106-107, 109-111, 147, 156, 158, 170, 172, 194, 242-243; vs. religion, 242; vs. Leibnizian IS, 144; transcendental dialectic, 170, 172; and Leibniz and Locke, 144; move from to Hegelian I.S., 265

kill maximizer, 93; cf. weapon, 73

killer application, (112)

kinematics, 128, 134-135, 137, 197; and arithmetic and geometry, 197

knowledge, 8-10, 12, 17, 25, 54, 55, 62, 95, 153-155, 189, 200, 203, 233, 276; intuitive, 25; practical, 5, 11, 13, 18; personal-tacit (cf. heuristic), 101-102, 107, 154; of reality, 204; of science, 200; and love, 203; knowledge engineering or elicitation, 82-84, 87, 93, 138; as value, 95, 200; value of, 203; as power, 200; as reality and action vs. illusion, 204; representation, 137; practical, 191; systematization of, 117; vs. politics, 112, 122; striving for, 267; cf. knowledge representation, data, information, tacit knowledge, knwoledge management, wisdom, politics

knowledge management, 62, 74-75, 117; cf. navigation, inquiring systems (passin the whole book), knowledge, management

Kuhn-paradigm, (199)

labelling of inputs, 110, 117

laboratory accuracy, 198

labour unions (MBL-participation), 233

labyrinth, 144

Langefors, B., (THAIS & systems precedence analysis) 20, 24, 35, 38, 41, 45, 49, 51, 54-55, 63-64, 72-73, 77, 84, 96, 98, 101, 104, 105-106, 118, 130, 134, 136, 139, 161, (166), 171, 177, 186, 189, 191, 195, 224, 236, 243, 249, 253, 256, 259, 270, 275 (ADB)

language, 102, 104-105, 107, 116, 123-125, (139), 142-143, 145, 148-149, 171, 186, 189, 195, 201-202; language input, 105, 107, 123 (SAF); empirical, 125; common, 105; of empiricism and inductive mood, 202; of learning, 201-202: of measurement, 186; of communication, 124; and action: cf. action; passage from is to ought, 103, 105, 115, 202; language games, (105); of doubt, 109, 114; of science, 102;  metalanguage and object language, 161; linguistic forms, 145; cf. communication, conversation, illocutory forces, perlocutory forces, dictionary

law, 74-75, 106, 108, 123, 175, 193, 198, 204, 256; penalty of, 161; law procedures, 106; as analysis of disagreements or politics, 193; and scientific law (Cranberg), 75, 198; and democracy, 123; cf. justice, democracy, Thomas A. Cowan

leadership, 196, 200; cf. management, decision maker, heroes

learning, 17, 56-57, 101, 108, 131, 145-146, 148-149, 173-176, 184, 201, 228, 230-236, 268-269; learning (information system) vs. organizational activities, 56; as generalization, 108; objective, 149; as improvement, 153; meaning of, 131; dialectical, 180; as education, 267-268; as objectivity, (145); and experimenters, 235; and instruction, 103; and implementation, 235; in science, 228; in society, 228; computer's, 131; expression or language of, 201-202; as generalization, 108, 111; vs. tacit silent knowledge, 149; styles of learning or of inquiry, chaps. 2 to 10; dynamic, 112; about reality, 146; and education, 159-160; as psychic development, 171; learning systems, 56; by experience, 131; cf. intelligence, knowledge, generalization, induction, flexibility, progress, cooperation, improvement, insight, reason vs. intellect, trial and error, education, experience, understanding, inquiry, sweep in, objectivity, debate, change, revision, generalization, solution, stooge

Lebenswelt; as living reality and conviction: cf. life world, phenomenology

legal, judicial structure, 123

legitimation, cf. authority, 163-164, 167

Leibnizian inquirers, 36, 62, 66, 69-72, 108, 145, 147, (164), 170, 176, 197; and Lockean, 230; and Kantian inquirers, 144; generalization of, 197; and Lockean inquirers, 36, 230; and faith, 242; and unconscious, 265; Leibnizian science, 39-40; Leibnizian formal systems, 30-32, 136

length, measure of, 152, 188

Lenin (Stalin), 253

levels, 11, 74, 76, 77, 91, 113-114, 153, 174, (204); of detail, refinement, 190, 192; of authority or hierarchy, 76; cf. meta-, hierarchy, organizational

liberalism, 4, 68; cf. pluralism, chap. (5) passim

libraries, 9, 11, 15, 61-62, 101, 117, 120-121, 128, 267; Alexandrian, 117; cf. data base, Internet

life, 157, 173, 249, 258; cf. biology, blood, phenomenology

life world, 171-2; cf. phenomenology

light velocity, 200

likeness, 101, 191; cf. identification, comparison, sameness, identification

limit (ideal), 257; cf. environment

limits, 73

Lindblom, C.E., 65-66, (228), 281

linear programming, 67

linearity; cf. logic, time, history, Leibnizian IS, vs. hypermedia

links; cf. networks, chap. (2)

literature, 170; cf. drama

living reality and conviction, 171-172

living systems, 39, 41

Locke, J., 154, 169, 180, 183; chap. 5, passim; Lockean IS vs. Leibnizian, 111, 116, 122, 230, 235, 242

Lockean, young investigator, example, 121

log across the road example, information vs. action, 164; cf. rock on the road, 114-115; cf. radarscope speck, 124

logic, 6, 13, 24, 29-30, 37, 60, 70, 81, 83, 85, 92, (94), 102-103, (105), 108, (110), 113, 123-124, 134, 145, 160-161, 170, 192, 195, 198; symbolic, 6; reconstructed 195, 197-198, 215, 240; inductive, 123; as probability, 113; transcendental, 145; as sociology, 198; Hegelian, 70; predicate calculus, 108; beyond logic, 192; logical forms and classes, 108; inbuilt, 108; and contradiction, 70; cf. Leibnizian inquiring  systems passim

logical empiricism, cf. logical positivism

logical positivism, 134; logical empiricism, 159-160, 166; as inductive logic, 123; cf. "positivism"

logical reconstruction, 13, 195

logical tests, 37

love, 24, 28, (70), (119), (160), (169), 238, 243, 246, 255, 258, 264, 266 and knowledge, 203; as agreement, 119; as cooperation, 200; cf. cooperation, enemy, trust, beauty

machines, 23, 39, 43-45; cf. mechanism, technology

macro, 44

magic square, 142-143

majority, vote, 105, 112; cf. democracy

management information system, cf. system, Singerian IS, hypersystem

management, 74, (148), 158, 163, 181, 196, 200, 227; as self-consciousness and self-reflection, 158; as science, 74; and information, 163; and delegation of authority, 163; fads, 92; of service, 185; and art, social science and physics, 93; and authority, 163-164, 167; cf. implementation, leadership, performance, metadesigner, self-consciousness, self-reflection, authority, control, cybernetics, knowledge management

manufacturing, 53-54, 92-93, 166-167; cf. production

market, as non-separability, 67, 133, 167; marketing as advertising, 167; cf. pluralism, sales, demand

Mars, unmanned space laboratory on, 91

marxism, 18, 91-92, 99!, 97 (=Riley), 119 (misunderstanding), 153, (174-175), 184 (participatory); cf. communism, Lenin, economics-politics-participation-implementation, MBL

Mason, R.O., 180-181, 184, 284

master, and slave, 160; as servant, 168

materialism; cf. reality

mathematics, 26, 94, 112-113, 125, 136, 139-140, 142, 192, 195; mathematical logic, (197); arithmetic, logic

matrices, 125; number 142

maturation or "mognadsprocess", cf. evolution, improvement, learning, progress

MBL medbestţmmandelagen (participation act), cf. Hegelian IS, 159-177; implementation, politics

Mead, G.H., (106)

meaning, 9, 28, 30-31, 33, 70, 80, 95, 102, 104, 115, 137, 140, 157-158, 161, 174, 198, 203; grounds for, 70; of experience, 70; teleological, 171; interpretive, (95); of variation, 193; as expression of information, 137; significant data, 84; creation of, see Weltanschauung; cf. understanding, learning, significance, interpretation, explanation, why, semantic, implementation, evaluation, reflection, intepretive approach

means, 5, 45, 73, 140, 163, 256; means-ends distinction, 43-46, 269-271; cf. tool, instrument, action, goal

measurement, 112, 152, 186-205, 257; social, 187-190, 193; and observation, 110, 187; operational, 187; analysis of variance in, 193; a priori in, 194; authority of, 196; control of, 196; scale, 85-86, calibration of, 191-192; of length, 152, 188; infinite regress  in, 188; in Kant's problem, 194; in a Lockean community, 187, 189; parsimony of (cf. sawmill), 196; partitioning in, 86, 192-193; of performance, 43, 47, 50, 80, 90, 189, 200; readings and replications, 190-192; of science, 200; and simplicity, 188; standards in, 186, 188, 189; sweeping-in, 197; systems, 187-189; units in, 186-189; and utility, 189; of performance, 50-53, 188-189; physical vs. social, 187; economic, 189-190; arbitrariness of unit of, 189; value of, 190; as metric for weighing of end-products (expected value), 46; as readings, 191, 193; cf. data, instrument, quantification, classification, bias

mechanics, 59, 132, 136, 197; Galilei's, 132; quantum, 197; cf. morphology, function, physical science

mechanism, 132, 160-161, 168; as imagery, 209-210; mechanist information, 160; cf. structure, function, morphology, determinism

meditation, cf. (prayer)

medicine, 51, 223, 256

memory, 6, 100-101, 157; cf. data base

mental models, 153-154, 156-161; mental states, 156-157; cf. representation, perspective, virtuality, model

message, 118, 136, 144, 159-160; of information-data, 144; cf. information

meta- (cf. levels), 17, 76, 153, 169, 183, 263; cf. hierarchy, metadesigner

metadesigner, 148; as observer of the subject, 158; as perfect over-observer, 191, (193-194); as overviewer, 235; cf. self-consciousness, self-reflection, manager

metalanguage, 161

metaphor; 93-94, 141, 143, 147-148; as biased mode of representation, 138-139, 141, cf. analogy

metaphysical, 122; cf. ontology

method, 5, 13, 60-63, 72, 91-92, 113, 115-116, 132, 137, 143, 149, 152, 154, 171, 192, 195, 274-275; scientific, 60-63, 113, 115, 154, 190-196; vs. uniqueness, 205; and solution, 143; qualitative, 192-193; resistance to, 92, 171; observational-inductive, 115; of proof, (195); trendy, 92; vs. theory, 132; as input structure vs. theory, 137; critique of logical, 195; and science vs. politics, 60; resistance against the methodical, 92; problematic, 143; of measurement, 152; cf. science, scientific method, research, solution, logical reconstruction, replication, generalization; dialectics, ethnographic method

metric, of expected value, 45-46; cf. measurement

metrology, chap. (9), 186ff; cf. measurement

Michaelson-Morley experiment, 135

microbiology, 116

military, intelligence, 97-98, 118-119, 124, 161; cf. strategy, tactics, executive intelligence

Mill, J.S., 113

Miller J.A. (general systems), 41

mind, 6, 23, 39, 41, 87, 93, 97, 150-151, 197, 261; reflective, 27, 155; state of mind, 156-157; absolute, 174, 178; constructive, 172-174, supreme objective 174, 176-177; collective, 70, 162, 194, 196; group mind, 68, 197; community of minds, 97; as brain, 161; psychic development of, 171; reality of or models of, 151; system as mind, 93; cf. introspection, absolute mind, intelligence-intellect, soul, brain, artificial intelligence

minimal apriori, 125; cf. apriori

mirage, 157; cf. virtual

MIS, cf. management information system

mobile Internet (ubiquitous computing): representation in, 134-137; as adjustment of readings in time and space, 195-196; problems of identification and individuation, 37; as distance work, 13; cf. communication, inventory model, distributed intelligence, individuation, identification

modalities of propositions, cf. moods

modalities of thought, and of systems, 197-199; cf. disciplines, sweep-in, apperception

model, 51, 133, 142-144, 147-148, 165; model building, 147, 165-166; input model, 140, 142-143, 147-148; normative, 133, mental, 99, 103-106, 154, 156-161; cf. user model, mental model, system, simulation, image, perspective

modernism; cf. progress, optimism, enlightenment, postmodernism

modus tollens, 40

mognad, cf. maturation

molecular structure, in mass spectrometry, 81

molecular biology, 197; cf. biology

monad, Leibnizian, 30, 35-36, 39, 41, 75, 77, 93, (162), (168), 212

monism, 67-68, 71; cf. pluralism, PPB

monitoring; cf. control, management

monkey brain (example), 23

mother; archetype of the Great Mother, 244; cf. archetype

mood or modalities of propositions (indicative, imperative, counterfactual conditional, interrogative), 102; cf. indicative, imperative

mood, 173, 182, 202-204, 205; cf. attitude, feeling, hero, Jung, Hillman, indicative mood

morality, 24, 200, 202; and expertise, 163; vs. benefit, 250; and design, 249; and information, 163; in Kant, 255; cf. ethics

morphological class, 44, 214; cf. function

mother; nature), 238; and quarreling sons example, 174

motive, good reason, 181; cf. cause, teleology, goal-objective

multidisciplinary research, 74; cf. interdisciplinarity, inquiring systems passim

multimedia, cf. sensation, system, hypermedia, postmodernism, anti teleology, ateleology, Leibnizian IS, fact nets, hypermedia, hypertext, World Wide Web; as Lockean "five modes of sensation", 100

multimodal inquiry, 196-198; systems thinking, 75-76; cf. sweeping-in, transdisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, apperception, aspects, perspectives; Herman Dooyeweerd, Donald De Raadt

multiperspective approach; cf. sweeping-in

mysticism, (58), 237, 249, 252, 265; cf. unconscious, intuition

myth, (96), 178, 203-204, 243-244, 245n; progress as, 178; cf. narrative, drama, epos, hero, Jung, fantasy, imagination

narrative, 32, 174-177-178, 180; as epic, 174, 176-178, 182, 270; as story telling, drama, 177-178; and accuracy, 178; vs. science, 178; as stories of the world, 32; cf. discourse, Weltanschauung, conversation, play, theater, epic, metaphor, myth, drama, Jung, story, postmodernism

NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, viii-ix, 91; cf. space mission; Mars, and whole book, passim

natural image, 191, 194-195, 197-198; cf. Weltanschauung, world

nature, 238, 260, 268, 275, 276; natural science, 159, 209-212

navigation, in library (also as Internet analogy), 62, 117, 121; as visual recognition, 142; as input structuration, 142; as art, 93-94; cf. retrieval of information, space-time, representation, solution, knowledge management

need, vs. demand, 166-167; cf. purpose

negotiation, 174; vs. authorization, 196; cf. arbitrator, agreement, debate, bargaining, conflict, facilitator

network, 9, 104, 108, 111, 196; as network organization, 196, 200 and cf. centralization, decentralization; cf. hypermedia, anti teleology, ateleology, tree, Leibnizian inquiring system (chap. 3 and fact nets), Internet, World-Wide-Web, actor network ANT

neural nets, as induction machines 26; 119, 156; as induction from observation, 87, 123-124; cf. Lockean IS, learning, intelligence, artificial intelligence

neuro-science, 75, 156-157

news, cf. attention

Newton, I., 204

Newton-syndrome, 19, 64, 69, 123

Newtonian mechanics, 136

node; cf. object (chap. 5), network (chap. 2)

nominalism, as conventionalism, 72

nomos, laws in Greek, 80

nonconventional, 119; cf. conventional

nonlinearity; cf. system, hypermedia, hypersystem, postmodernism, debate, browsing

normal observer, 101; cf. competence

normative models, vs. descriptive, 133; ; cf. imperative mood, ought, is-ought, action, ethics

notitia, cf. attention

nourishment, cf. cookery

nuclear physics, 116

number matrices, 142

numerical analysis, (140)

object orientation, 149, 160, 166; as mechanical information, 159

object, 11, 70, 72, 82, 104, 124, 131, 149, 160, 162, 192, 196, 255, (274); definition of, 109; as entity, 106; as identification-individuation, 128; vs. measurement of, 191, 196; orientation, 106, 160; subject as, 150, 156; object language, 161; teleological object: cf. implementation

objectivity, 63, 70, 71, 114, 118-119, 125, 145-146, 149, 166, 157-158, 175; and reality, 146, 158; of Lockean inquirers, 125; as design separability, 54;  objective learning, 149; as agreement, 150; and debate, 162, 175; cf. learning, absolute mind, truth, reality, otherness

observation, 40, 60-61, 87, 96-97, 102, 110, 112-113, 115, 119, 122, 125, 138-139, 146, 149-150, 153, 159, 166, 168, 189-191, 198; observational process, 97; design of, 119; what to observe and teleological information, 166; direct, 154; participant, 159-160, 184; accuracy of, 154; reporting of, 157; as a reading, 190-191; participant, 156; and adjustment of readings, 195; and hypotheses, 193-194; directing an observation, 112-113; history of, 191; adjusting observations, 194-196, perfect observer, 111-112; and measurement, 110, 187; inference from, 87, 152; independent, 191; cf. input, sensation, perception, attention, measurement, perfect observer; counter-instance, ethnographic method

observer, 6, 40, 101, 106, 146, 150-151, 153, 159; as user, 156, independence of, 191-192; of an observer, 146-147, 150-151, 158, 172, 235; representation, 159; as a synthesis, 173; perfect or normal, 40, 101, 111, 150-153, 159, 191; training of, 198; neutral facilitator, 159; observed as an object, 150; designer as, 150; over-observer: cf. metadesigner, manager, aspect, perspective

obsolescence, of inventory, 165; cf. (Swedish) lager inkurans

obviousness, 98

Ockham's razor, 72, 138

ontological transformations, as maximal apriori, 138-144

ontology, 28, 34, 69, 76, 144-147, 160; ontological commitment or assumptions, 144-145, 191-192; as existence, 69, 72, 76, 78; and epistemology, 76; in pragmatic sense, 78; essences, 28; ontological status of sense impressions, 72; in the improper sense of predication, (103); cf. reality, assumptions, essence, existence, interpretive, phenomenology, ontological transformations, virtuality, metaphysics

operationism and operational definitions, (115), 153, 186-188

operations research, 166

operating system, cf. executive

opinion poll, 170-171, 183-184

opinion, 114, 154, 162, 184; opinion survey, 106, 184: cf. subjectivity, conviction

opportunity cost, 165, 167-168, 170; cf. cost

opposition, 173; cf. conflict

oppression, 163; cf. alienation, power

optical character recognition, OCR, 26

optimism, 202; self-awareness, production-cooperation-progress, 178, 186

optimization, 67, 94, 152; 171, 182; and satisficing, 51; as maximization of utility, 263; cf. satisfactoriness, improvisation

ordering, 152, 155, 192; cf. ranking

ordinality and cardinality, in measurement, 152; cf. preferences

organism, 197; cf. biology

organization, 72, 77, 97; theory, 72, 77; studies, 133, 170-171; and standard costs, 66; study of, 170-171; of knowledge, 97; and information system, 121; social, 97; network or horizontal, 196, 200; organizational behavior, 133; cf. system passim

original, cf. individuation, uniqueness, replication

otherness, 104, 151, 158, (161), 177; cf. uniqueness,objectivity, identification, diversity, difference, sameness, introspection

ought, 52, 74, 133, 195, 201; and how-what, 195; cf. ethics, is-ought, imperative, normativity

outliers, statistical, (111-112), 194

output, vs. input, 137; cf. input

outsourcing, 165-167

overviewer, 235; cf. metadesigner

owner, of problem, 146

paradigm, 15, 39-40, 85, 111-113, 194, (198), 199; paradigmatic science, 39; cf. culture, scientific paradigm as style of inquiry

paradox 135; systems analysis', 217; 255; of teleological information, 164

Pareto-optimality, 152

parsimony, 72, 138, 196; design of, 134, 138; and economy, 124, 141; in measurement (cf. sawmill), 196; in generalization, 84-90, 114; cf. simplicity, economy, richness

parsing, 20, 30, 34, 36, 81, 142-143, 147

part, of system, 50, 56; cf. subsystem, component

parti, such as basic general scheme of an architectural design, as generation of a conviction, 171; as an apriori, 143; as hypothesis creation in design, 116; cf. reflective intuition, imagination, design

participation, 196, 201, 250; and hierarchy, 77; participant observation, 159-160, 184; lack of, 159; cf. MBL, dialectics, democracy, implementation, cooperation, politics

particular, vs. the general: cf. implementation, action, situated action; cf. generalization, judgment

partitioning, 85-87, 112, 175, 190, 192-194; cf. precision, interpolation, disagreement

passion, 171-173; cf. conviction

past-future, 110, 153, 160, 166; history, 166; unchangeability of, 160; cf. history, forecast, prediction, time

past generations, 160-161, 201; cf. history, time

path, 140

pattern, 5, 27, 26, 100, 123-124, 126, 138-140, 150, 173; recognition, 94, 100, 124-125, 140, 142, 150; cf. image, optical character recognition

peace, 71, 173-174, (188); cf. cooperation, conflict

peer review, 15, 35, 101ff, 162, 221; hearings, 272; as collective subjectivity 58-59; cf. expert, agreement, consensus

Peirce, C.S., (187), cf. pragmatism

perception, 26, 30, 75, 103, 112, 123, 138-139, 142, 144, 155; selective, 171; as interpretation of sensation, 194; vs. sensation, 125; cf. sensation, observation

perfect observer, 40, 111-112, 150-153, 159, 191; cf. observer, politics of science

perfection, 73; cf. quality, completeness

performance, 91; of standard, 188-189; cf. measurement, purpose, function and functionality, evaluation, cost-benefit

perlocutory forces; cf. pragmatism

personal knowledge, 150-151, 153-154, 173; cf. tacit knowledge, silent knowledge, community knowledge

perspective, 75, 111, 118, 125-127, 139, 142-144, 149, 153, 155, 158-159, 168-169, 170-172, 174, 175-177, 183, 194, 198; teleological, 168; narrow or broad, 174; as state of mind, 156-159; transperspectivism, 75; as psychological attitude, 105; as ways of looking, 159; as conviction, 172; as structuration of inputs, 142; vs. truth, 143-144; and world-view or natural image, 194, 196; as apperception, 73-75; as input strategy of an a priori, 137-145; as Singerian natural image, 191, 194; ; as imageries of nature, 191, 194-195, 209-212; cf. aspect, Weltanschauung, apriori, apperception, (point of) view, observation, model, (Kantian) representation, impression, interpretation, opinion, system

PERT program evaluation and review technique, and CPM critical path method, as project management, 92-93

phenomenal-phenomenology (cf. ateleology), 139, 151, 157, 158; phenomenal world, 138-139

phenomenological approach, 144-145, 151, 153-155, 158-159, 177, 257; and truth, 257; cf. interpretive approach, hermeneutics, Lebenswelt

phenomenon, 139; cf. event, observation, reality

philosophy, of science and language, 195; and passim

photographical plate, scratches on (example), 137

psychic development, 170-171

physical science, 116, 137, 192, 197-198, 210; and art, management and social science, 93; geometries of physicists, 137; physic's data, 137; cf. Newton, Galilei, Newtonian mechanics, relativity theory

Piaget, J., 102

picture, 20, 151; of alternative actions or Weltanschauung, 169; rich picture, 71-72; cf. image, vision, pattern

planner, cf. designer

planning, 48, 67, 74, 77; dialectic, 180; difficulty of, and design, 153; cf. design, management, hierarchy

Plato, 18, 36, 41n, 67, 78, (139); on memory and recognition, (101); and pre-Socratic 41; Platonism, 41n

plausibility, 171

play, 125, 138-139, 203-204, 235, 241, 254; cf. drama, gambling, game, humor, narrative, epic, myth

pluralism, 25, 68, 71-73, 78, 92-93, 105, 111; as plurality, 105; and diversity, 204; cf.  agreement, democracy, monism, pluralism, relativism, liberalism, values, actor network, polytheism, postmodernism, chap (5) and chap. (7) passim

PoincarŽ, 28

point of view, 75; cf. perspective

policy, of research, 122; cf. strategy

political science, 59-60

politics, 58-60, 68-78 esp. 74, 106, 119-120, 122-123, 172-173, 184-185, 193-194, 200, 217, 220, 222-225; 270; and scientific method, 60-61; and subjectivity, 120; and information, 122; vs. knowledge or science, 112, 122, 247; as analysis of disagreement, 193; and implementation, 66, 233; and the state, 204; inquiry of, 58-59, 217, 247; as myths, 96; as incrementalism, 66; political consciousness, 184-185; of research or science, 88, 122, 180-181; of science, 58-59, 111, 122, 180-181, 193-194; and cost of empirical research, 120; cf. agreement, disagreement, general will, pluralism, democracy, power, cooperation, conflict

pollution, 144, 202; cf. ecology

Polya, 28

polytheism, 73

Popper, K., (136), (199); cf. validation, error

popular science, 8, 271

positivism, 51, 60-61, 81, 102, 108, 110, 114-115, 119-120, 122-123, 125, 129, 132-134, 142, 145-146; 160-161, 164, 195, 197-198; logical, 134, 160, 195; in evolutionary development, 63; as inductive logic, 110, 123; logical, 159; cf. agreement, conventional, logical positivism, database

possibility, 161

postmodernism, 32, (36), 40, 49, 68, (71), (95), (168), 170, (177), 178, 187, 189, (196), 203-204, 217, 276; as progress-process, 40-41, 203-205; as anti thinking, 177-178, 255; as subjectivism, 153; as process, 203-204; cf. anti-thinking, anti teleology, anti-planning, ateleology, romanticism, pluralism, antinomy, relativism, skepticism, subjectivity hypermedia, multimedia, progress vs. process, sensation (as surrogate of feeling), feeling, unconscious, narrative or epic

poverty, 144, 178, 181-182

power, 6, 58-59, 68, 73, 112, 119-120, 160-161, 185, 196, 216-217, 219ff, 232-236; as enabling value, 200; as value and ethics 73, 200; of a central agency, 68; as cooperation, 200; as centralization, 68; veto power, 111-112; cf. politics, cooperation, agreement, oppression, alienation, monism, pluralism, democracy, authority, responsibility

PPB (program planning and budgeting), 67, 92-93, 226;  cf. systems planning, monism, strategic-tactical

practice, 13, 166-167, 225; community of, 167; practice-praxis, 171; practical knowledge, 191; work practice, 166; cf. reality, pragmatism, empiricism

practitioner, reflective, 155; cf. implementation, practice

praxis, 166

pragmatism, 11, 120-122, 168, 225; as making a difference, 164; in research politics, 122; cf. Dewey, J., James, W.

prayer, 243; cf. religion, faith

precedence (cf. Langefors), 134

precision, 175, 196; as refinement, 86, 190-191, 196; cf. accuracy, partitioning, Ivanov (project AVH quality)

predicate calculus, 108

predication, 86, 103-106, 201

prediction, 110, 131, 153, 165; cf. forecast, regularity, causality, purpose

preferences, 152, 155; cf. ranking

prejudice, 159; cf. apriori

preparedness, 170

presuppositions, 110, 124, 131, 133, 141, 184, 190; background presuppositions, 125; cf. assumptions, a priori

primitives, vs. logic, 198

price, 67

pricing, and advertising, 167

priority, of purposes, 73

privacy, 123, 151, 155, 161, (162), 173, 178, (220); cf. Ivanov (project SAF)

private knowledge, cf. personal knowledge

probability 32, 45, 105, 108-109, 113, 153, 201, 211, 214, 252; subjective vs. objective, 153; cf. risk, uncertainty, random, statistics, and logic of

problem, 146; social 181; and the a priori, 138; of representation, 125; formulation, 146, 171, 195; solution, 138, 146, 254; solving machines, 38-39; problem owner, 146; cf. representation, learning, input, solution, method

process; endless, 199; vs. progress, 203-205; inner, 107; cf. change, action, function, progress, postmodernism, ateleology, anti teleology

producer-product, 8, 44-46, 51; potential, 44-45, 4; inquiry as production, 141

product, vs. service, 185

production, industrial manufacturing, 53-54; cf. manufacturing

production, inquiry as, 141

production-science-cooperation trilogy, 202; and progress, 203

productivity, 137; cf. efficiency, effectiveness, parsimony, measure of performance

professions, 74

professors and dissenting students (example), 199

profit, 124, 167; cf. cost and benefit, measure of performance

program 6, 103, 126; as a system, 90-91, as Leibnizian processors, 30-32; as project management, 92-93; as instruction, 103, 115; vs. database, 202; and data 102-103; cf. PPB, imperative, is-ought

progress, 39-40, 153, 175-178-179, 186-205, 201-204, 229, 245, 248, 254; measure of, 189; defined as client, decision maker, and designer are the same, 201; in monism, 71; as myth, 178; vs. process, 203-204; progression of sciences, 39, 198; as adjustment of changing object, 196; as revolution of counter-theories, 199; non-linear, 202-203; cf. absolute mind, optimism, change, postmodernism, learning

project management, 92-93; cf. PPB, PERT

proof, 195; vs. discovery, 195; cf. validity, verification

property, 78, 99-100, 108; maximum, 34, 73; of object, 150; cf. attribute, predicate, partitioning

prototype, cf. simulation, hypothesis, thesis, test, model, grov bild - coarse picture, vs. skarp miljš

psi, stands for psychology

psychic development, 171

psychoanalytic knowledge, (97), 155

psychology (psi), 75, 103, 133, 155-157, 160, 197, 204-205; as attitude, 105; and religion, 265; cf. mind, sensation, perception, emotion, feeling, conscious, unconscious

Ptolemaic theory, 196; cf. Copernican revolution, astronomy, apriori

public 176-177, 180-183; well-informed citizen, 176-177, 269; as community knowledge, 154; cf. democracy

public opinion, 162-163, 176

purpose, 5, 46-47, 69, 71, 73, 88, 163, (171), 214, 226, 246, 250; cf. teleology, end, goals, objectives, will, desire

puzzle, 139, 143; cf. problem, solution

qualitative method, 113, 115, 120-121, 138, 152, 192-193, 255; as empiricism, 113-114; vs. quantitative, 152; cf. ethnographic studies, measurement, quality, quantification, descriptive, interviews

quality, 12, 65, 73, 146, (165), 192-194, 266; as value, 190; (total) quality control, 65, 165, 193-196; as reliability of data, 10, 84; cf. total quality management, evaluation, improvement, learning, evaluation, quantity, tolerance, satisfactoriness, perfection, completeness

quantification, quantitative method, 112-113, 192-193; cf. measurement

quantum mechanics, 197; cf. physical science

questioning, 87; cf. explanation, interpretation, understanding, why, interview

qui custodiet custodium, 135; cf. watchdog

radarscope, speck on, 124

rain today (example) 31-32

random, 120, 199, 211, 252-253; cf. probability, statistics

ranking, 46; of entities, 73; of preferences, 152; cf. ordering; net ranking

rational (cf. reason), 62-64, 69, 96, 170, 256, 258, 260

rationale, cf. evidence, commitment, explanation, understanding, proof

rationalism, 40-41, 70, 96

rationality; and reality, 176-177; cf. inquiry passim, reason, truth, Weltanschauung, perspective, aspect, privacy, public, pluralism, personal knowledge

raw data, 99, 137; cf. basic data

reaction, 43-46, 118, 159, 164, 168; cf. stimulus, action, response, interaction

reaction-response,159, 168; cf. action-activity

reaction-time, of observers, 197; cf. Bessel

reactionary, 17, 173, 204; cf. conservative

readings, 191, 193; cf. measurement

real, realism, and ideal-idealism, 19, 35, 178, 199; common sense, 19

reality, 13, 41, 68-69, 72, 76, 78, 90, (96), 97-98, 122-123, 128, 139, 146, 148, 151, 157-158-160, 175, 178, 183-184, 186, 189-190-191, 196, 199, 204; social, 183; as agreement, 191; as corresponce, 160; representation of, 176; of knowledge, 204; of inputs, 123;  three images-visions, 213; of whole systems, 68-69, 76; living reality, intervention and participation in, 171-172, 183; database as image of, 160; as ontological commitment, 191; as realistic problem solving, 143; of the mind, 151; vs. illusion, 204; cf. truth, ontology, objectivity, Weltanschauung, virtuality, virtual reality, empiricism

reason, unconstrained, 170, 172; good reason or motive, 181; cf. thinking

reception of information, 100, 106-107, 128; cf. input, data collection

receptivity, 145

recognition, 101-102, 107, 125, 138, 145; cf. reflection, cognition

recurrence-recursivity (cf. infinite regress, vicious circle, self-reference), 178, 188

recursive, 25, 169, 199; as infinite regress, 168, 178, 188; as endless process, 199; in experiments, 132, 135; recursive property of intuition, 25; cf. regression, vicious circle

redefining of terms (cf. translation), 105

reductio ad absurdum, 136

reductionism, 75, 161

redundancy, 161

reengineering, workflow, 14, 52, 124, 141, 165-167, 174; as revision of apriori, 194-195; as management fad, 92-93; cf. coconstruction, evolution; redesign, 247; as system reconstruction, 67; cf. downsizing, change, incrementalism, cost reduction, action, activity, revision, management information systems MIS

refinement, 87, 190, 191, 192; cf. partitioning, detail, precision, accuracy, reliability, rough picture, grov bild, approximation, classification

reflection, 17, 22, 28, 30, 100, 107, (112), 148, 155, 238; a priori, 129; in Lockean IS, 100, 107; self-reflection, 158; reflective intuition, 107; in action, 155; cf. self-examination, self-reflection, meaning, trial and error

reflective practitioner, 155; cf. self-reflection, management, action, separability; cf. Schšn, D.

refutation, 149; cf. confirmation, doubt

region, cf. subsystem parts or components in chap. 3

regularity, 110; cf. replication, forecast, causality

relation, 50

relational logic, 34; cf. entity relationship

relativism,  (95), 136, (144)-145, (196), 203-204; against relativism, 174, 276; cf. postmodernism, perspectives, aspects, virtuality, anti-thinking

relativity, special theory of, 136

relevance, 32, 84-85, 88, 98, 125-126, 138, 142, 165, 167, 171-172, 175; of information, 171; of input, 142; cf. attention, accuracy

reliability of data or information, 84, 97, 109, 113, 156, 160, 162; cf. accuracy, precision, quality, credibility

religion, 34, (40), vs. 70, 96, 98, 155, 163, 171, 172, 174, 176-177, 205, 237-238, 244, 249, 251; and theodicy, 36; and inquiring system, 264; and psychology, 265; and authority, 196; imagery of, 243; of inquiring systems, 237-246; and science, 219, 229, 237, 239; cf. God, Church, ethics, theology, hope, faith, trust, guarantor

repertoire, of patterns, 140, 169; of responses, 197; of experience, 170; as catalogue of opportunities, 197-198; cf. system, resources, database, classification, types, archetypes, metaphors

repetition, cf. replication

replication, 154, 132, 190-192, 198-199, 235, 255; of observations, 85; cf. precision, experiment, method, regularity, forecast, (duplication)

reporting, of observations, 157; cf. data collection

repository, of information; cf. data base, memory

representation, 116, 125-127, 139, 158-160, chap. 6, passim; mode of, 156-157; cf. mental model, reality, perspective

requirements, demand, 167

research & development Đ R&D, 263; dialectics of, 180-184, process, 83, 60-61, 64, 180-181

research, 60-62, 90-91, 190-202; system politics of, 58-59, 122, 180, basic, 244; as an exploitative term, 221; and God, 244; interdisciplinary, 198; management of, 74; pure, 120; as a system, 60, 90; automation of, 115-116; and development R&D, 180; design of, 91; method of, 91-92, 116; policy or design, 91; cf. science, learning, scientific method, politics policy

researcher, young, 121; cf. research, science, designer, planner

resources, 43, 47-48; resource allocation, 67, 156; resources preferences; cf. cost, input, effectiveness

response-reaction, 157, 159, 164, 168; cf. activity, action, reaction, interactivity, stimulus

response repertoire, 156-157, 170; cf. chap. (2) on fact nets, chap. (3) functional and teleological classes, action, stimulus, teleology

responsibility, 63; cf. autonomy, power

responsiveness, cf. action-response, Hegelian IS, commitment, vs. alienation

restlessness, 199-200; cf. contentment, hero, don Juan syndrome, contentment, postmodernism, relativism

retrieval, 121; cf. navigation, data base

reverse engineering, (171)

revision, 194, 199; as adjustment, 196; cf. change

revolution, 173, 182, 204; cf. change, reactionary

rhetoric, (182-184); cf. aesthetics, drama, narrative, conversation, agreement, conviction

rich; data, 142; description, of data 120, 138, 140; representation of data, 126, 138, 141; design, 143, communication, 122; analogy, 143; of information, 138

rich analogy, 143; cf. metaphor

richness, of information as comprehensiveness of picture, 138; of representation, 141

rich solution, 72, 98, 146; synthesis, 182; representation, 141; information, 98; experience, 170; cf. parsimony, minimal vs maximal apriori

right feeling, (155); cf. feeling, conviction, aesthetics, romanticism

risk, 124; and uncertainty, 153; cf. probability, doubt, uncertainty

Rittel, H., 180n

rock on the road example, 114-115

role; cf. actor, designer, planner, decision-maker, client, human dimension, social

Romanticism, 151, (153), 155, 158, (159), 170-171; 173, 177-178; as anti teleology of the designer, 249; as neo-romanticism, (203); source of in Kant, 170; as primacy of the subjective, 151, as action life vs. grey theory, 204; cf. aesthetics, intuition, feeling, anti teleology, ateleology, feeling, subjectivism

Rousseau, J-J., cf. general will

rules, 22-23, 125-126; of games, 138, 204; rules generating system, 187; no rules, 204; application of partitioning rule, 193; cf. norms, values

rumour spread, 92

sacrifice, 250

SAF; cf. Ivanov, project SAF

sailing example, and smaller mind, 11

Saint Thomas, of Aquinas, 18

sale, 133, 184-185; sales statistics forecast, 133; demand, 166; cf. market

same-another, 101, 151; cf. individuation, identification, likeness

sample estimate, 124

sampling, 85, 88, 111, 124; stratified, (197); statistical vs. complete count, 85; and completeness of empirical inquiry, 120, 124; cf. statistics

SAP, as management fad, 93-93; cf. management information systems MIS

satisfactoriness, satisficing, 24, 51, 64-65, 80-82, 90, 111, 121, 124, 140, 146, 161, 167, 176, 189, 191, 199, 202, 211, 253; as degree of confirmation, 80; as complacency, 199; cf. accuracy, optimization, solution, measure of performance, simplicity, tolerance, understanding, politics, negotiation, improvisation, optimization

savings, and costs, 124,

sawmill example, 166- 167, 187, 189; as  simplicity of measurement, 196; cf. generalization, parsimony

scalar quantity, 86

scenarios, cf. vision, image, simulation, narrative, hypothesis, thesis

schema, 80

Schšn, D., (155); cf. reflection, self-reflection, action, pragmatism, Dewey, design, trial and error, ateleology, anti teleology

science, 10, 39, 60, 74-75, 80, 91, 105, 149, 154, 158-159, 192, 195, 197-198, 203, 219, 224 (intern.), 225, 273; political and social aspects of, 122; politics of, and philosophy or sociology, 58-59, 193-194; hierarchy or progression of sciences, 197-198; biological social humanistic behavioral, 210; and religion, 219; as story telling or narrative, 178; language of, 102; scientific method, 154; esoteric vs. exoteric, 60; formal, 129; cf. method, replication, research

scientific comunication, 61; research method

scientific management, 74

scientific method, 13, 72, 85, 112, 116, 154, 195, 268; as design system and politics, 58-61; cf. method, objectivity, explanation, validation, research, ethnographic method, qualitative method

scientism, 60

scratches on photographical plate (example), 137

Searle, cf. action language

search, "engines", 101

security, 73, 161, 173, 204; as watchdog, 150; of data, 161; cf. guarantor, secrecy, control, watchdog

self, 151; and fact as alienation of, 161; cf. interpretive, dialectic

self-analysis, 129, 249, 265

self-consciousness; (129), 151, 158, 186, 194, 213, 236, 241, 243, 249; in agreement, 194; cf. consciousness, autopoiesis

self.-contradiction, 31; cf. contradiction

self-control, 196

self-deception, cf. illusion

self-examination, 107; of an apriori, 129; cf. (self)-reflection

self-knowledge, 204

self-reflection, (129), 158, (168), 175; self-reflective paradox, 148; cf. reflection, self-consciousness, self-examination, self-analysis

semantics, 9, 10, 21, 30-31, 33, 102, 123, 144-145, 159-161; cf. meaning, object, language, communication, connotation or intension, denotation or extension, semiotics, pragmatics and syntax

semiotics, 159-160; logical syntax vs object semantics vs. use pragmatics, as syntax cf. chap. 2, semantics cf. chap. 5, pragmatics cf. chap. 7; cf. semantics, object, meaning, individuation, pragmatism, symbol, observer

sensation, 97, 99-100, 102-103, 105, 119, 128, 131-132, 138-139, 151, 153-155, 158, 194, 261-263, 265; subjective, 152; vs. perception, 125; intensity of, 152; as surrogate of feeling (cf. hypermedia), 264-265; cf. perception, feeling, postmodernism, anti teleology, ateleology

sense; cf. sensation, meaning, understanding, argumentation, conviction, semantics, design, dialectics (chap. 7); sense data, immediacy of, 155

sensuous intuition, 106, 131, 144-145, 158, 170; vs. cognition, 145; sensuous inputs, 170; cf. perception, sensation, observation, data

separability, 111, 114, 120, 122, 133, 145-146, 164-165, 167, 177, 224, 270-271; of observational subsystems, 110, 122-123; of apriori problems, 130; of designer, 146; cf. components, system, subsystems, hierarchy

service management, 185

set theory, Boolean algebra, 192

sex, 266; cf. love, feelings, biology

shame, 264

Shannon, C., (161)

shift-and-drift or function-creep, 5, 14, 45-46, 51-52, 63, 65, 83, 93, 153, 203, 205; as a function of the designer, 150; cf. function creep, evolution, trial and error, change, adaptive systems, flexibility, implementation, sweeping-in, ateleology, situated action, improvisation, bricolage

significance, of data, 84; level, 112; of variation, 193; cf. meaning, relevance

silent knowledge, cf. personal knowledge, tacit knowledge

Simmons, R.F., 26, (71), 281

Simon, H.A., (46),  65, 80, 83, 95-96, 139-140, 153,  (176), 253

simplicity, 19-20, 21, 24-25, 29, 37, 72, 96, 99ff, 103-105, 108, 113, 133, 136, 137-140, 141; and clarity, 24; and the a priori, 137; design of, 99; in design, 78; of formal theory, 96; and generalization, 127; of inputs, 97; in measurement, 188; of observation, 96; simple systems, 78; as parsimony vs. economy or effectiveness, 138, 141; economic value of, 138-139; cf. clarity-clearness, parsimony, complexity

simulation, 142; cf, virtual reality, reality, measurement, virtual

Singer, Jr., E.A., viii, 44, 46, 83, 85-86, 105, 119, (144), 146, 175, 178, 186, 199, 230, 281; vs. Leibniz, 197-198

SIS/RAS, 83, 89, 92, 93, 120-121

situated action, 5; as situational knowledge, 11; implying a metric to weigh the end-products of outomes, 46;  why, 153; in context, see systems; cf. action, function (functional and teleological classes), Weltanschauung, implementation, shift-and-drift, improvisation, bricolage

skarp miljš, 192; cf. test, reality, hypothesis, thesis, simulation, picture, prototype, coarse picture

skepticism, 131-132, 134, 152-153; cf. doubt, improvisation, postmodernism, relativism, Hume

sketching, 20

so-what, 164, 166, 172-173; cf. why-not

social, 5, 8, 14, 97, 101, 104-105, 107, 118, 187, 193; and economics, 124; problems, 181; social science, 151, 181, social measurement, 189-190

social actor, cf. (teleological) entity, (sub) system, action, teleology

social organization, 97; cf. system

social science, 68; and art, management and physica, 93

socialism, and fascism, 68

sociology, 120, 197; logic as, 198; of science, 193

Socratic  (pre-), 41 (Anaxagoras)

software, cf. program; software packages, 116, 118

solipsism, 105, 150-151, 153; cf. Berkeley

solution, 81, 139-143; 146-148, 150-151, 185, 195, 230-236; and computer, 197; problematic, 143; impossible in real systems, 143; cf. method, satisfactoriness, problem, stooge, learning

soul, (204); cf. mind

source, of data, 153

space mission, NASA, 91; space probes 116

space-time, see time-space

specialization, 123, 124-125, 176; cf. expert

spectacles, example, 142

spectrometer, 81ff, 116

speculation, 18; cf. reflection

speech acts; cf. action language, ought, is-ought, illocutory forces, perlocutory, imperative, (Austin), (Searle), Habermas

Spinoza, 25, 69, 71-72, 77

spirituality, (204); cf. religion, God, values, ethics, culture, emotions, intuition, intelligence, mood, conviction, individual, mind, knowledge, creativity; vs. reality, anti thinking

stability, 191, 196; cf. change

standard deviation, 200n

standards, 6, 11, 40, 112, 110, 186-189, 195-196, 198; as convention, 114; adjustment, 196; as apriori or mode of receiving information, 137; cf. measurement, calibration

standpoint, cf. aspect, viewpoint, attitude, perspective

state government, and politics, 204; cf. politics

states, of nature , cf. morphological classes, 159, 166; of mind, 99-103, 118-119, 151, 153

statistics, 6, (32), 37, (61), 65, (74), (80), 84-86, 90-93, 105, 109, 110-113-116, 120, 124, 132-133, 134, 153, 161, 183, 188, 192-193, 197, 211-212, 235, 238; likelihood ration, 90; and variances in standard costs, 66; misuse of, 112; outliers in, 111-112; measures of confidence, 111; regression or least mean squares analysis, 112; sample estimate, 120, 124; statistical experiment, 183-184, 192-194; statistical variance, 193; computerized, 112; statistical inference, 92; statistical method, 132; statistical correlation vs. causality, 131; standard deviation, 200n; cf. language of doubt, hypothesis testing, probability, uncertainty, sampling

stewardship, cf. adaptative, evolution, learning, revision, reengineering, change

stimulus, -response, 97, 102, 151, 154, 156-157, 159, 163-164, 168; cf. reaction, input-output, black box

stochastic, cf. random

stock, cf. inventory

stock market, 212

stooge, example and experience of implementation in education, 230-236

story telling, 178, 180, 270-271; cf. narrative

strategy, 87, 139-140, 171, 192-196, 202; vs. tactics of science, 195-196; strategy, 183-185; strategic I.S., 170-171; strategy vs. authority, 196; and agreement, 105; cf. ideals, tactics

stratified sampling, (197)

structure, 45; of information or data, 137; tree structure, 144; cf. morphology, mechanism, determinism

styles, 170, 266; repertoire of, 177; as form of individual expression, 267-268; styles of inquiry, chaps. 2 to10; cf. repertoire, paradigm, aesthetics, culture

subject, 106; -object, 158; cf. inquirer, entity, object

subjective probability, 114

subjectivism and subjectivity, (58), 63, 107, 114-115, 119-120, 151-159, 177, (196), 203-204; intersubjectivity, 149; subjective sensation, 152; in design, 63; collective, 58; subjective belief as judgment, 114; of tastes, 266; cf. objectivity, perspectives, relativism, postmodernism, romanticism, solipsism

substance, 69, 77, 106

subsystems, components, 7-8, 43, 49-60, 67, 77-78, 167; cf. part, component, unit, separability

success, 47, 85, and failure, 139; cf. evaluation, measure of performance, cost-benefit, ethics, failure

summaries, of inquiring systems, 20-21, 37, 70, 95 chaps. (5)-(10), 111, 118-119, 144, 176-177, 194, 197, 243; Leibnizian and Lockean compared, 111, 116; Lockean and Kantian apriori compared, 134; Kant, Leibniz and Locke, 144; this book

supersonic transport SST, 229

support, 4, 6, 13-16; computer support, 115, 116; cf. tool, (co)-producer, change, cooperation

supreme objective mind, 174, 176-177;  cf. God

survival-reproduction, 210

sustainability, cf. guarantor

swans, example, 108-109, 111, (123-124)

sweeping -in, 131, 146, 170, 175, 197, 199, 215-216, 253-254, 256-257; as apperception, 75-76; cf. chap. 9 passim, perspective, aspect, conversation, agreement, conflict, apperception

symbol, 20-21, 30, 171; sequence of, 143; cf. icon, image, sign

symbolic interactionism, (106); cf. Mead G.H.

symmetry, 139

synaesthesia, 100-102, 106, 118-119; cf. chap. (5), virtuality

synthesis, 32, 175, 177; cf.  system, agreement,

system, 7, 39-41, 42ff  passim43, 167-168, 174-175, 195, 198, 200, 202; definition, 7; as data, 168; size of, 56, 58; systems development, 120; as integration of knowledge, 94; as comprehensive picture from givens, 145; whole system, 71; vs. drama, 178; larger system and components or subsystems of, 167; Singerian conception of, 195, 198; system idea, 41; systems theory, chap. (3) passim; cf. general systems theory, subsystem, component, part, environment, whole, context, narrative, drama, interdisciplinarity, design, synthesis

system insight, cf. learning, improvement, understanding, reason vs. intellect, intuition

systems philosopher; 68; cf. metadesigner

table or desk, example in measurement, 187

tabula rasa, Lockean "blank tablet", 99-100

tacit knowledge, 18, 21, 25-28, 28, 36, 81, 82-84, 87, 92, 138, 145, 150-153, 175, 177, 178; in agreement, 194; and knowledge engineering, 83, 87, 88-89-90, 92, 101-102, 107, 116, 118, 137-138-139, 145, 150-153 (Julian Hilton), 154-155, 158; expert, 162; as love-conviction, 171; personal vs. communicative, 173; vs. learning, 149; explicit alternative design; drama-theater, 256-257; and unique element in decision, 256; everybody's 268-269; as direct vs. inferential observation, 153; cf. personal knowledge, public or community knowledge, expert, heuristics, personal knowledge, silent knowledge, intuition, unconscious

tactics, vs. strategy, 192, 195-196

taste, 24, 266; subjectivity of, 266; cf. style, aesthetics

tautology, 4, 23, 29, 31, 33, 37, 116, 108, 160-161

taxation, and obsolescence or deterioration, 166

taxonomy, 108, 159, 186-187, 192; as distinctions, 270; as dichotomic classification, 159; cf. classification, coding, definition

technique: cf. method, technology

technology, 7, 15, 23, (41), 44-46, 200; and effectiveness, 202-203; information technology:  as computer; as machines, 23; use of, 46; applied, 58; innovation and exploration of, 193, 199; exploration or exploitation as observed by designers, 150; drifting in its use: cf. shift-and-drift; as conscious attempt to change: cf. design, p. vii et al; as resource and transformation function: cf. innovation, action-activity-production, efficiency, productivity, function vs. morphology, economy; as power-potential:  power, knowledge, progress, production; as change of implication fact-nets, cf. chaps. (2) and (7) passim

teleology, 39, 45, 69, 159, (160), 163, 168, 210-211, 213, 215, 246; as cost-benefit, 163; of information, 165; cf. purpose, end, function, will, vs. ateleology, anti teleology, anti-thinking, relativism, pluralism

terrorism, and war, 162-163, 270; ; terrorist mind, 173-174

test, 109, 136, 149; crucial, 136; hypothesis testing, 192, 196-197; of instrument, 83; of expertise, 163; neurological or psychological, 156; related to hypothesis, see hypothesis; cf. control, validity or validation, sharp test (Swedish: skarpa miljšer)

textualization-context, cf. system

Thais, Theoretical Analysis of Information Systems, cf. Langefors

theater, 178; inquiry as, 203; ref. Julian Hilton; cf. drama, epic, myth, narrative, play

theology, 24, 33, 36, 40, 68!, 70, 74, 76, cf. God, religion, ethics, morals

theorems, and axioms, 136, 142; cf. axiom, generalization

theory, 39, 87, 132-133; and input, 137; vs data, 32-33, vs. observation, 87; theoretical base for certification, 188; cf. model, conceptual frame

Theseus, 204; cf. hero

thesis, 171-177; cf. hypothesis, dialectics

thinking, 127, 131, 134, 259-260; cf. inquiry, design, reason

this book, vii, 4, 9, 16-18, 20, 23, 27, (37), 41, 42, 43, 63, 79, 111,  176-177, 180, (203), (205), 230, 258-259, 274-276

ticktacktoe, example, 125; game of, 142

time, 15, 160-161, 176, 197; time savings, 81, 91;  cf. clock, past, space-time, history, future

time-space, 37, 40, 106-107, 110, 131, 149, 194; cf. geographical information system GIS

tolerance, 193, 191, 201; as agreement within a range, 113; cf. satisfactoriness

tool,  83, 86; cf. means, instrument

Toulmin, S.; cf warrant

toothache example, 151-152

topology, 94

total quality management Đ TQM, 165; cf. quality

totalitarianism, 4

TQM, cf. total quality management, quality

trade-off, 47; cf. values

tradition, 39, 87-88, vs. collective mind, 162-164; cf. fact net or chap. 2 passim, Weltanschauung, history, past, future generations, ethics, religion

tragedy, 177-178, 203-205; tragedy-comedy, 177-178; cf. drama, epic

transaction, 133; cf. event, sale

transcendental, logic, 145

transdisciplinarity, 74-75, 195, 197-198; cf. interdisciplinarity, multi-modality

transitivity-symmetry, 134, 186

translation, 105, 119, 125, 136; of inputs, 143; as formal redefinition of terms, 136; cf. interpretation, hermeneutics

transparency; cf. understanding, satisfactoriness

tree structure, 100, 104, 144; cf. net

trial and error, 51, 83ff, 139; and improvisation, 139; cf. learning, (Leibnizian) net ranking, experiment, test, design, evaluation, change, shift-and-drift

trilogy (cf. optimism), production-science-cooperation, 202-203; plenty-cooperation-heroic mood, 254; client-decision maker-designer are the same, 201, 204

triviality, of problem, 139-140; cf. simplicity

trust, 153, 163-164; as confidence, 111; vs. suspicion of dialectic within a dialectic, 183; cf. guarantor, warrant, God, love, friendship, ethics, hope, faith, belief, doubt, religion

truth, 21, 25, 32, 37, 91, 96, 103-104, 118, 174, 257; as accuracy, 63; correspondence theory of, 160-161 and chap (5) passim; coherence theory of, see chap. (2) passim; intuitive, 25; true estimate, 51; privileged, 39-40; and cost, 91; Internetlike truth, 91; as end point of process, 37; cf. reality, objectivity, fact, depictive, accuracy

Turing's test, (150)

ubiquitous computing; cf. mobile Internet, communication

uncertainty, 105, 109, 114, 153, 196, 201, 212; of doubt, 105; blocked out of discourse, 202; cf. risk, probability, doubt, statistics, conversation killing

unconscious, 28, 120, 123, 203, 244, 264-265, 272; collective, 203; and creativity, 265; input as part of the, 265; cf. feeling, emotion, anti teleology, ateleology, postmodernism, intuition, Jung, myth

understanding, 4, 49, 72, 75, 104, 198, 203; and compassion 11; cf. explanation, meaning, reason, agreement, learning, satisfactoriness, interpretation and interpretive approach

unexplainable events, 136

uniqueness, 32, 190-191, 193, 204-205, 245, 255-257; in planning, 255; as differentiation, 265-268; of individual, 204; cf. individuation, generalization, otherness, method

unity, of client-designer-decision maker, 201, 204; cf. system, separability, entity, individuation, identification

unit, of measurement, 186-189; cf. measurement, standard, entity

universal proposition, 83

university, 57, 59, 122

usability, 101, 117-118, 121; cf. human-computer interaction HCI/CHI, purpose, measurement of performance, evaluation, satisfactoriness, quality, aesthetics, function-(functionality)

use or user behavior, 101, 117-118, 156; vs. designer, 118; user models, 125, 156

usefulness, 120; cf. utility, pragmatism, measure of performance

user friendliness, 121

user model, 10, 118, 121, 125, 146, 157; -language, 125; as observer-subject, 156-157; cf. model

utility, 120, 151-152, 163-164, 189, 200, 263; as measure of value, 152-153; vs. aesthetics, 189; cf. preferences

vagueness, 186, 245; cf. doubt, clear, clarity, distinct

validity and validation, 22, 29, 83, 85, 80, 88, 96, 103, 108, 115, 128, 130, 149, 162, 189-190, 192, 225, 242; as confirmation, 80; as verification, 185; as evaluation, 136; of apriori axioms, 130; of sensation, 103; of apriori, 128, 130; as relevance, credence or evidence, 171-173; and politics or use, 225; theoretical base for, 188; cf. verification, test, accuracy, truth, reliability, confirmation, precision, experience, proof, value-worth, evidence

value; 71, 73, 102, 152, 163, 137-138, 189-190, 200, 249; vs. good value, 95; measure or comparison of, 152; value preference, 152; value judgments, 102; of knowledge, 203; of income, 190; economic, 137-138; value judgement or valuation, 163, 169, 192; as good in activity itself, 249; value and information, 121-122, 163-164; enabling power as, 200; ultimate, 163; and fact, 164; measurement of, 152; Ĺas personal value, 200-201; as quality, 190; as utility, 263-264; as trade-off, 47; added, 166; as power vs. ethic Peirce-Schiller in HCS, 95, 200; Aristotelian pluralism vs. Platonic monism (ref. Martha Nussbaum), 73; of measurement system, 190; cf. ethics, good, utility, quality, measure of performance, ideal, goal, ateleology, worth

variation, analysis or statistical, 65-66, 191, 193; significant, 193; cf. change, partitioning, disagreement

verification, 13, 185, 187; cf. validity, evidence, confirmation

veto power, 112; cf. counter-instance, politics of science, perfect observer

vicious circle, 169; vs. infinite regress, 168-169; cf. self-reference, regression

view, point of, 107, 149, 171, 177; sharing views, cf. agreement, consensus; cf. aspect, perspective, attitude

violence, as in terrorism, 173-174; cf. power, strength, Arendt, H.

virtual organizations, cf. virtual reality, Internet commerce, organization, system

virtual reality, 64, (72), 96, 122-123, 128, 137-139, 159, (183); as ideal, 178; and aesthetic intuition, 144; as legitimate distortion of inputs, 156; reality of, 150; relation to reality, 189; in measurement system, 187, 189; as adjustment of readings or observations, 195-196; as abstract mode of representation, 137; as realistic world and representations, 138-139; as reality vs. illusion, 204; and modes of sensation (see synaesthesia), 100, 102; cf. virtuality, reality, ontological assumptions, mind, truth, simulation, representation (chap. 6), entity, measurement, visual, implementation, constructivism, imagination, aesthetics (apparence, perspective, sensation, imagination), abstract, illusion

virtuality, 19, 64, (72), 76, 122-123, (190), 195; vs. reality, 13; and distinction between reality and non-reality, 97; cf. reality, virtual reality and real, artificial, truth, error, system, perspective, synaesthesia

vision, 170-171-172, 174; as thesis, 172; as policy, 180-185; visual recognition, 142; as conviction, 178; color perception, 157; and design, 173; cf. idea, strategy, conviction, Weltanschauung, thesis, ideal, intuition, figure of thought, sensuous intuition, form, creativity, aspect, perspective, view, image, picture, pattern, observation, attitude, elusiveness, ateleology, tacit knowledge, inspiration

visualization, 125, 138-139; image recognition, 123-124; cf. representation, perspective, sensation, solution, virtual reality, human-computer interaction HCI

vitalism: cf. living systems

VR, cf. virtual reality

wandering (circumambulatio), 205

war, or terrorism, 162-163

warehousing, cf. inventory

warrant, 98, 163; warranted database, 195; for authority, 163; cf. guarantor, watchdog, accuracy, reliability, ethics, theology

watchdog, 135, 150, cf. guarantor, control

we-them dialectics, 146

weak philosophy, vs. strong implications, 152-153

weapon, 73, 93; cf. kill maximizer

Weick, Karl, see double interact 118-120, stimulus response, repertoire of responses, vicious circle, interaction, consensus

Weltanschauung, 32, 169-179, 181-185, 194, 238, 250; and information, 169-179; counter-Weltanschauung, 224, 249; and conviction, 98; dual, 198; and Singer's natural image, 194; cf. culture, tradition, view, perspective, aspects, meaning, vision, image, world, ontology

wff (well formed formula), 31

what-how, 84, (128), 195, 223

whole, 193; system, 68, 71; whole system as God, 69; wholeness as system, 145; scope of inquiry, 195; cf. system, context

Whorf, B. (language), 144-145

why, 4, 5, 115, 163, 172, 194; as power in design, 6; and because, 79ff; vs. what, 115; cf. explanation, meaning, because, causality, teleology, how, what

why-not, 164, 172, 199; cf. so-what, explanation, because

will, 169, 170-172; general, 162; as supreme objective mind, 174, 176-177; cf. ethics, evaluation, value

wisdom, 236-273; cf. knowledge

Wittgenstein, L., (151), (160-161); language games, (105): cf. (Leibnizian) nets

work,  division of, 63, 74, 91-92; as human capability, 118-119; work practice, 166; cf. action-activity, production, creativity, organization, participation, cooperation

work flow, 166; see activity, producer-product, reengineering, effectiveness, efficiency, productivity

world; states of, 160; phenomenal, 138-139; as Weltanschauung or image of, 76, 169-170, 196; basic or realistic, 138; imagery for description, 209ff; in itself, 242; of the inquirer, 160; cf. Weltanschauung, reality, perspective, ontology, imagery, natural imagery

World-Wide-Web WWW, 15, 26, 117-118, 120, 176-177; as network of information, 9; as separability of storage and retrieval, 61-62; as library search, 117; cf. Internet, multimedia, hypermedia; anti teleology, ateleology, network, postmodernism, Leibnizian IS or fact nets, Lockean IS or trees, Hegelian IS or debate; database, data collection, libraries, separability

worth, cf. value