by Kristo Ivanov
Umeå University, Department of Informatics, S-901 87 UMEÅ (Sweden).
Phone +46 90 7866030, Fax +46 90 7866550, email@example.com
Bibliographic data (figures not included): Ivanov, K. (1995). The search for a theory of hypermedia. In D. Dahlbom, F. Kammerer, F. Ljungberg, J. Stage, & C. Sorensen (Eds.), Proceedings of the Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia IRIS'18 (pp. 283-293). (Gothenburg Studies in Informatics, Report 7. An earlier version was presented at the international Workshop on Social Contexts of Hypermedia, Umeå, February 17-18, 1995.)
A rigorous analysis and development of such a definition would obviously require a definition of definition itself, and, further, of the concept of theory, of system, of media as well as of the concept of context. The temptation of adopting such an analytical "deductive" approach, however, may be avoided by relating the issue to literature that belongs to the field of information, communication, or media research. I suggest the adoption of "functional" or teleological definition in the sense that the definition will be made to depend in part upon the historical use of the term, and in part upon the purpose of the inquiry. In doing so I will approach the adoption of a historically and philosophically grounded systems theory which supplies at least both a definition of system and of context.
I want, therefore, to advance the following philosophical and theoretical bases for hypermedia research, where theory is understood in the broadest possible sense of the word.
It is sometimes believed that logic deals only with formal symbols but it does not seem to be the case that such a limitation is inherent to Leibnizian philosophy of logic. I conclude that "Leibnizian inquiring systems" can be a theoretical basis for hypermedia applications.
I conclude that another possible theoretical basis för hypermedia applications is offered by "Lockean inquiring systems".
I conclude that one more possible theoretical basis for hypermedia applications is "Kantian inquiring systems".
Navigation is no more a matter of linkages for travelling in a network, and it is not a matter of arriving at a certain object with its attributes, as in a database. It is more a matter of "sweeping in" the world as stratified in its fields of knowledge and influence, stimulating antitheses and syntheses, striving for consensus or agreement in the context of maximum possible disagreement. The mechanistic definition of information is replaced by the dialectical definition where disagreement and error become central activators of a continuous "controlled" search. Hypertext thinking becomes hypersystems thinking.
I conclude that a more encompassing theoretical basis for hypermedia applications is "Hegelian-Singerian inquiring systems", in that they try to synthesize the feature of Lebnizian, Lockean, and Kantian inquiring systems in a "Hegelian" spirit. Hegel's philosophy has also the advantage of permeating much Western thinking in the humanities, including a due regard to matters of aesthetics.
To the extent that some researchers have attempted to take aesthetics seriously there have been lately problematic attempts to shift the emphasis from "theory" or "design of inquiring systems" towards sheer "design", and, further, to design thinking as found in architecture. The literature on design seems to be rich in compelling intuitions and examples, but it seldom spells out its philosophical assumptions, especially the ethical ones. I propose that those who refer to architecture should justify their choice in view of both the similarities and the differences between architectural and information "systems". Kant envisages that what is central to architecture, including crafts, is the use of the products of art. Neither computers not information, however, can be seen outright as products of art unless we equate industrial high tech to arts and crafts. This leads us to the need for considering in greater depth the complicated relationship between art and science which as of today seems often to be understood as in Kant's systematization and contextualization of science.
Kant's philosophical system can be schematized as follows (Swedish terms in italic):
Faculties of the Faculties of A priori Areas of mind knowledge principles application Faculty of know- Reason Lawliness, Nature-Science: ledge-Cognition Förstånd Primary goals Determinism,Truth Kunskaps Lagbundenhet Natur förmåga Satisfaction- Judgement Fitness- Aesthetics: Taste-Emotion Omdömes- Enthusiasm Art-Sublime & Tillfreds- förmåga Ändamåls- Play-Beauty ställelse enlighet Konst The will Intellect Ultimate goals Ethics: Freedom- Begär Förnuft or ethical Emancipation, ideals Teleology Slutmål FrihetAesthetics is here considered to have the function of bridging the true and the good. Aesthetics presents two interfaces: play-beauty, towards the true knowledge, and art-sublime, towards the good moral. In a Kantian perspective these are essentially categories of the individual mind or personal "I" egoism (or group- "We" egoism ) of the "I know", "I like", "I want". The "socialization" or universalization of this egoism is what probably motivates the participative pluralism that builds up the Rousseau-Kantian "world citizen" or the invisible universal civil church on the basis of "Habermasian" argumentation and communication", with a "Protestant" emphasis on justice rather than love.
It is in this multimedia context that one can understand the up to now rather unconscious will, and drive towards networking and communication, as well as towards the aesthetical fun of symbolic playful manipulation. Architecture is unconsciously and culturally sensed as having some sort of relevance in a conception of design which barely dares to advertise its claims of synthesizing unphilosophically the mostly undefined faculties of cognition, taste, and will. Architecture as belonging to the aesthetic realm would indeed have a Kantian claim of bridging the reason and natural science of computer technology to the intellect and teleology of the ultimate ideals of "the clients" and "the market".
I suggest that what I perceive as the inconclusiveness of the pretentious claims of this approach is conditioned by the possible inherent shortcomings of the Kantian model. Its communicative argumentative Hegelian superstructure permeates both the field of semiotics and the understanding of the relation between ethics and aesthetics. My own claim is that, to begin with, architecture has a very tenuous basis for its information claims in the context of multimedia.
In the Kantian subdivision of art there are the art of the word, fine art, and the art of play of the senses. The first art, of the word, includes rhetorics (cf. communicative argumentation) and poetry which Kant considers to be the highest form of creativity. The second, fine art, comprises art which is faithful to the senses like plastic art, and fictional "virtual" art like painting. Architecture including the crafts, like sculpture, belongs to the fine arts and, as mentioned earlier, it is characterized by the use of the works of art. Most of the "imaging" of multimedia including the claims of three-dimensionality in virtual reality, however, would seem to come closer to painting. Nevertheless it is the third type of art, art of the play of the senses, which may indeed be the one coming closest to hypermedia applications. It departs from sensuous impressions of sight and hearing, and it plays with colors and sounds, as in music which traditionally has being judged to be formally very close to formal logic and mathematics.
Kant goes further in combining the primary forms of art in the process of creating new forms of artistic creativity. Rhetorics and painting result in drama (cf. computer games and human-computer interaction as "theatre"), poetry and music result in song, song and music result in opera, etc. I will not pursue the question further beyond remarking that I have not seen anything like this sort of analysis in the determination or evaluation of the possibility of analogies between architectural and information systems. Architecture may not be interfacing with all the natural and formal science aspects of embodied cognition that are paramount to computer-based information systems. Furthermore, it should indeed be noted that the Kantian envisagement of art implies its two interfaces, towards both cognition (playful beauty), and will (sublime art). We have heard a lot about architectural art as a semiotic play of signs - the interface towards science, but very little about the other interface, symptomatically the interface towards ethics. I have therefore claimed that the present interest in architecture does not really tend to the whole of aesthetics. If one does not ground such interest in a philosophically based theory it may tend more easily, postmodernistically and irresponsibly, towards aestheticism.
The place of aesthetics as it has been understood in our research up to now, and the confidence in its "power" are simply misplaced. They take us away - we do not really know why and where - on the wings of an apparently aimless and costly multimedia technology, a sort of expanded, market-oriented world-wide-web of interactive television, cinema, and video games. This should not appear to be far fetched as compared with the lessons gathered from the realm of cinema and television research, to which the discipline of software design has been related.In order to try to prevent this from happening we must try to reach further.
Some symptoms of unfortunate results of unconscious applications of Kantian thinking are to be found nowadays in the interest for phenomenological and existential approaches. Their origins have been attributed to the the philosopher Johann Georg Hamann, a close friend of Kant who symptomatically also was his first strongest critic. This brings us to the issue of theoretical concern for tradition which seems to have been largely undervalued in Kantian enlightenment.
I suggest therefore that together with an analysis of the proper place and limitations of art in general, and architecture in particular, our theoretical interests should be informed by an explicit non-Kantian attention to tradition. There are easily available works that pay serious attention to tradition and to the import of visual culture as related to the social context, where the image is not anchored in traditional or historical experience the way the spoken or written word is. There are also other original works which cannot be easily classified, like the philosophical study of word processing, which should be a welcome inspiration in the search for a theoretical base for hypermedia.
To the extent that programming and software design can be seen as a branch of cinema we can revert to ignored "classics" of the analysis of this by now more "traditional" form of industrial art. These classics can indeed be found in the context of mass communication, including interactivity. My suggestion is, then simply to contribute to a theoretical platform for hypermedia by digesting earlier criticism of related forms of mass communication in general, and cinema in particular.
Despite the obvious temptation of avoiding these issues by considering them too philosophical, metaphysical, or whatever, it should be clear that if we ourselves do not pick up this task there is no indication that anybody else in society feels this responsibility. To my knowledge nobody else can hope better that we do to muster the resources for doing this, including resources for the availability of the necessary technical equipment. Without a theory there can be no scientific evaluation of practice, while we are having a lot of unstable, changing, and hopefully profitable, practice which waits for the establishment of its meaning in theory and in principles of design.
Axelos, K. (1961). Marx, penseur de la technique .
Britton, G. A., & McCallion, H. (1994). An overview of the Singer/Churchman/Ackoff school of thought. Systems Practice, 7(5), 487-521.
Campbell, J. (1978). The German Werkbund: The politics of reform in the applied arts . Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Churchman, C. W. (1961). Prediction and optimal decision: Philosophical issues of a science of values . Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Churchman, C. W. (1971). The design of inquiring systems: Basic principles of systems and organization . New York: Basic Books.
Churchman, C. W. (1979). The systems approach and its enemies . New York: Basic Books.
Dictionary of the history of ideas: Studies of selected pivotal ideas. (1973). . New York: Scribner's. (Wiener, P.P., Editor.)
Forsgren, O., & Ivanov, K. (1990). From hypertext to hypersystem. In R. Trappl (Ed.), Cybernetics and Systems '90. Proc. of the Tenth European Meeting on Cybernetics and Systems Research, Vienna, April 17-20, 1990 (pp. 275-282). Singapore: World Scientific. (Also as report UMADP-RRIPCS 9.90, University of Umeå, Inst. of Information Processing.)
Gross, D. (1992). The past in ruins: Tradition and the critique of modernity . Amherst: The University of Massachussetts Press.
Gulyga, A. (1977). Immanuel Kant . Göteborg: Daidalos. (Russian orig., 1977.)
Hamann, J. G. (1967). [Article on]. The encyclopaedia of philosophy (pp. 406-408). New York: Macmillan.
Heim, M. (1987). Electric language: A philosophical study of word processing . New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
Ivanov, G. (1995). Det började i Tyskland [It started in Germany]. In K. Wickman (Ed.), Jubileumsbokkatalog [Anniversary book]. Stockholm: Föreningen Svensk Form. (Scheduled to appear in October 1995 on occasion of the 150th years' anniversary of The Swedish Society of Crafts and Design.)
Ivanov, K. (1972). Quality-control of information: On the concept of accuracy of information in data banks and in management information systems . The University of Stockholm and The Royal Institute of Technology. (Doctoral diss. Diss. Abstracts Int. 1974, Vol 35A, 3, p. 1611-A. Nat. Techn. Info. Service NTIS No. PB-219297.)
Ivanov, K. (1985). Universitetets bidrag till näringslivets och förvaltningens samhällsnytta. In C. Knuthammar, & E. Pålsson (Ed.), Vetenskap och vett: Till frågan om universitetets roll (pp. 52-62). Linköping: University of Linköping. (ISBN 91-7372-925-6. With a bibliography of 95 entries - pp. 124-127.)
Ivanov, K. (1990). Information systems design through creativity (UMADP-RRIPCS 12.90). University of Umeå, Inst. of Information Processing. (Revised ed. of orig. title Creativity and Systems Design: An "ecumenical" view of information systems research in Scandinavia in S. Bødker (ed.) Proc. of the 12th IRIS Conference - Information Systems Research in Scandinavia,13-16 August 1989, Skagen, Denmark, Aalborg, 1989.)
Ivanov, K. (1991). Computer-supported human science or humanistic computing science? Steps toward the evaluation of a humanistic computing science (UMADP-WPIPCS-41.91:3). Umeå University, Inst. of Information Processing. (Rev. ed. of paper presented at the Tenth International Human Science Research Association Conference, August 18-22, 1991, Gothenburg.)
Ivanov, K. (1992). Computer-human interaction as continuous system reconstruction. In M. Bazewicz (Ed.), Information Systems' Architecture and Technology - ISAT '92 (pp. 37-49). Wroclaw: Politechnika Wroclawska.
Ivanov, K. (1993a). Belief and reason, power and heroism in the task of the systems designer: Commented selections on presuppositions of participatory cooperative argumentative design and change (UMADP-WPIPCS-47.93.2, ISSN 0282-0587). Umeå University, Inst. of Information Processing. (2nd rev. ed.)
Ivanov, K. (1993b). Hypersystems: A base for specification of computer-supported self-learning social systems. In C. M. Reigeluth, B. H. Banathy, & J. R. Olson (Ed.), Comprehensive systems design: A new educational technology (pp. 381-407). New York: Springer-Verlag. (Also as research report, Umeå University, UMADP-RRIPCS-13.91, ISSN 0282-0579.)
Ivanov, K. (1994). Inquiring systems as an "ecumenical" research platform in the age of hypermedia. In P. Kerola, A. Juustila, & J. Järvinen (Ed.), Quality by diversity in information systems research (pp. 17-32). Oulu: University of Oulu, Dept. of Information Processing. (Proc. of the 17th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Syöte, Finland, 6-9 August 1994. Vol. 1.)
Linderholm, O. (1991). Mind melding: How far can the human/computer interface go? Byte, Special Edition - Outlook'92, 41-46.
Marion, J.-L. (1981). Sur la théologie blanche de Descartes . Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
McKinsey, J. C. C. (1940). Postulates for the calculus of binary relations. Journal ov Symbolic Logic, 5(3, Sept.), 85-97.
Mitroff, I. I. (1984). The invasion of the mind: A worst possible scenario for the office of the future. Office: Technology and People, (2), 79-86. (With comments and discussion up to p.102 in the same issue.)
Morin, E. (1983). L'esprit du temps . Paris: Grasset. (First ed. published 1962.)
Myhill, J. (1952). Some philosophical implications of mathematical logic. The Review of Metaphysics, 6(2, Dec.), 165-198.
Niebuhr, R. (1986). Love and law in Protestantism and Catholicism. In R. McAfee Brown (Ed.), The essential Reinhold Niebuhr: Selected essays and addresses (pp. 142-159). New Haven & London: Yale University Press.
Nisbet, R. (1971). The degradation of the academic dogma. The university in America, 1945-1970 . London: Heineman.
Philipson, M. (1963). Outline of a Jungian aesthetics . Evanston: Northwestern University Press.
Rolf, B. (1991). Profession, tradition och tyst kunskap [Profession, tradition, and silent knowledge] . Övre Dalkarlshyttan: Nya Doxa.
Sherry, P. (1992). Spirit and beauty: An Introduction to theological aesthetics . Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Stolterman, E. (1991). Designarbetets dolda rationalitet: En studie av metodik och praktik inom systemutveckling [The hidden rationale of design work: A study in the methodology and practice of system development] . Umeå: Umeå University. (Doctoral diss. UMADP-RRIPCS 14.91.)
Thackara, J., (Ed.). (1988). Design after modernism: Beyond the object . London: Thames and Hudson.